Y khoa, y dược - The cardiovascular system: Blood vessels: Part C

Tài liệu Y khoa, y dược - The cardiovascular system: Blood vessels: Part C: 19 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels: Part CFigure 19.21aR. externalcarotid arteryR. internalcarotid arteryR. common carotid– right side of head and neckL. externalcarotid arteryL. internalcarotid arteryL. common carotid– left side of head and neckR. vertebralL. vertebralR. axillaryArteries ofR. upperlimbMediastinal– posterior media- stinumEsophageal– esophagusPericardial– pericardiumBronchial– lungs and bronchiGonadal– testes or ovariesSuprarenal– adrenal glands and Renal– kidneysCeliac trunk– liver– gallbladder– spleen– stomach– esophagus– duodenum Superiorand inferiormesenterics– small intestine– colonBrachiocephalic– head, neck, and R. upper limbPosterior intercostals– intercostal muscles, spinal cord, vertebrae, pleurae, skinInferior phrenics– inferior diaphragmLumbars– posterior abdominal wallMedian sacral– sacrum– coccyxSuperior phrenics– posterior and superior diaphragmR. subclavian– neck and R. upper limbL. and R. coronaryarteriesL. subclavian– neck and L. upper limbL. ...

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19 The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels: Part CFigure 19.21aR. externalcarotid arteryR. internalcarotid arteryR. common carotid– right side of head and neckL. externalcarotid arteryL. internalcarotid arteryL. common carotid– left side of head and neckR. vertebralL. vertebralR. axillaryArteries ofR. upperlimbMediastinal– posterior media- stinumEsophageal– esophagusPericardial– pericardiumBronchial– lungs and bronchiGonadal– testes or ovariesSuprarenal– adrenal glands and Renal– kidneysCeliac trunk– liver– gallbladder– spleen– stomach– esophagus– duodenum Superiorand inferiormesenterics– small intestine– colonBrachiocephalic– head, neck, and R. upper limbPosterior intercostals– intercostal muscles, spinal cord, vertebrae, pleurae, skinInferior phrenics– inferior diaphragmLumbars– posterior abdominal wallMedian sacral– sacrum– coccyxSuperior phrenics– posterior and superior diaphragmR. subclavian– neck and R. upper limbL. and R. coronaryarteriesL. subclavian– neck and L. upper limbL. ventricle of heartThoracic aorta T5 – T12 (diaphragm)Abdominal aorta T12 (diaphragm) – L4Ascending aorta– L. ventricle to sternal angleL. axillaryR. common iliac– pelvis and R. lower limbArteries of R. lower limb(a) Schematic flowchartL. common iliac– pelvis and L. lower limbArteries of L. lower limbArteries ofL. upperlimbDiaphragmVisceral branchesParietal branchesVisceral branchesParietal branchesAortic archFigure 19.21bInternal carotid arteryCommon carotid arteriesSubclavian arterySubclavian arteryAortic archAscending aortaCoronary arteryThoracic aorta (abovediaphragm) Renal arterySuperficial palmar archRadial arteryUlnar arteryInternal iliac arteryDeep palmar archVertebral arteryBrachiocephalic trunkAxillary arteryBrachial arteryAbdominal aortaSuperior mesenteric arteryGonadal arteryCommon iliac arteryExternal iliac arteryDigital arteriesFemoral arteryPopliteal arteryAnterior tibial arteryPosterior tibial arteryArcuate artery(b) Illustration, anterior viewInferior mesenteric arteryCeliac trunkExternal carotid arteryArteries of the head and trunkArteries that supply the upper limbArteries that supply the lower limbFigure 19.22aBrachiocephalic trunkAortic arch(a) Schematic flowchartR. and L. anterior cerebral arteriesAnteriorcommunicatingarteryR. and L.posteriorcommunicating arteriesBasilararteryR. and L.commoncarotid arteriesR. and L.subclavian arteriesSuperiorthyroidarteryLingualarteryFacialarteryOccipitalarteryMaxillaryarterySuperficialtemporalarteryOphthalmicarteryR. middlecerebralarteryR. posterior cerebralarteryR. and L.vertebralarteriesR. and L.internal internal arteriesR. and L.external carotid arteriesCerebral arterial circleFigure 19.22b• Superficial temporal artery• Maxillary artery• Occipital artery• Facial artery• Lingual artery• Superior thyroid artery Ophthalmic artery LarynxThyroid gland(overlying trachea)Clavicle (cut)BrachiocephalictrunkInternal thoracicarteryBasilar arteryVertebral arteryInternalcarotid arterySubclavianarteryAxillaryartery(b) Arteries of the head and neck, right aspectExternalcarotid arteryCommoncarotid arteryThyrocervicaltrunkCostocervicaltrunkBranches ofthe external carotid arteryFigure 19.22dFrontal lobeOptic chiasmaMiddlecerebral arteryInternalcarotid arteryMammillarybodyTemporallobeOccipital lobeCerebral arterialcircle (circle of Willis) • Posterior cerebral arteryBasilar arteryVertebral arteryCerebellum• Posterior communicating artery (d) Major arteries serving the brain (inferior view, right side of cerebellum and part of right temporal lobe removed)Pons• Anterior cerebral artery• Anterior communicating artery PosteriorAnteriorFigure 19.23aInternalthoracicarteryLateralthoracicarteryAnteriorintercostalarteriesSuperficial palmar archMetacarpal arteriesDigital arteriesUlnar arteryCommoninterosseusarteryRadial arteryDeep palmar archAnastomosisSubscapulararteryDescending thoracic aortaPosterior intercostalarteriesCostocervical trunkAortic archBrachio-cephalic trunkL. subclavian arteryL. vertebral arteryL. common carotid artery(a) Schematic flowchartR. common carotid arteryR. vertebral arteryThyrocervical trunkSuprascapular arteryR. subclavian arteryAxillary arteryThoracoacromial arteryThoracoacromial artery(pectoral branch)Anterior and posteriorcircumflex humeralarteriesBrachial arteryDeep artery of armFigure 19.23bVertebral arteryCostocervical trunkThoracoacromial arteryAxillary arterySubscapular arteryRadial arteryUlnar arteryBrachial arterySuprascapular arteryThyrocervical trunkPosterior circumflexhumeral arteryAnterior circumflexhumeral arteryDeep artery of armCommoninterosseousarteryDeep palmar archSuperficial palmar archDigital arteriesCommon carotidarteriesRight subclavian arteryLeft subclavian arteryBrachiocephalic trunkPosterior intercostalarteriesAnterior intercostalarteryInternal thoracic arteryLateral thoracic arteryDescending aorta(b) Illustration, anterior viewFigure 19.24a(a) Schematic flowchart.AbdominalaortaInferiorphrenicarteriesCeliactrunkSuperiormesentericarteryMiddlesuprarenalarteriesRenalarteriesInferiormesentericarteryLumbararteriesMedian sacral arterySuperior rectalarteryL. colicarterySigmoidalarteriesR.colicarteryL. gastroepiploic arteryR. gastroepiploicarteryIleocolic arteryIntestinal arteriesCommon iliac arteriesGonadalarteriesGastro-duodenalarteryHepaticarteryproperCommonhepaticarterySplenicarteryR. gastricarteryL. gastric arteryLMiddlecolicarteryRDiaphragmFigure 19.24bLiver (cut)DiaphragmEsophagusLeft gastricarterySuperiormesentericmesentericLeftgastroepiploicarterySpleenStomachPancreas(major portion liesposterior to stomach)Splenic arteryInferior vena cavaCeliac trunkHepatic arteryproperCommon hepaticarteryGastroduodenalarteryRight gastric arteryGallbladderAbdominal aortaRightgastroepiploicarteryDuodenum(b) The celiac trunk and its major branches. The left half of the liver has been removed.Figure 19.24c(c) Major branches of the abdominal aorta.Hiatus (opening)for inferior vena cavaDiaphragmInferiorphrenic arteryMiddlesuprarenal arteryRenal arterySuperiormesenteric arteryMedian sacralarteryCommoniliac arteryUreterGonadal(testicular or ovarian) arteryHiatus (opening)for esophagusCeliac trunkAdrenal(suprarenal)glandKidneyAbdominal aortaLumbar arteriesInferiormesenteric arteryFigure 19.24d(d) Distribution of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries. The transverse colon has been pulled superiorly.Celiac trunkTransverse colonInferior mesentericarteryAortaDescending colonSigmoid colonRectumSuperiormesenteric arteryAscending colonIleumRight common iliacarteryAppendixCecumBranches ofthe inferior mesenteric artery• Left colic artery• Sigmoidal arteries• Superior rectal arteryBranches ofthe superiormesenteric artery• Middle colic artery• Intestinal arteries• Right colic artery• Ileocolic arteryFigure 19.25aInferiorglutealarteryInternalpudendalMedialcircumflexfemoralarteryLateralcircumflexfemoralarteryInternaliliacarteryObturatorarteryExternaliliacarteryDeep artery of thighFemoralarteryAdductorhiatusArterialanastomosisAnteriortibialarteryPoplitealarteryFibular(peroneal)arteryLateralplantararteryPosterior tibialarteryDorsalispedisarteryArcuatearteryLateralplantararteryDorsal metatarsalarteriesPlantar archMedialplantarartery(a) Schematic flowchartAbdominalaortaCommoniliac arteryPlantarmetatarsal arteriesSuperior glutealarteryFigure 19.25bCommon iliac arteryDeep artery of thighObturator arteryFemoral arteryAdductor hiatusPopliteal arteryAnterior tibial arteryPosterior tibial arteryFibular arteryDorsalis pedis arteryArcuate arteryDorsal metatarsalarteries(b) Anterior viewInternal iliac arterySuperior gluteal arteryExternal iliac arteryLateral circumflexfemoral arteryMedial circumflexfemoral arteryFigure 19.25c(c) Posterior viewPopliteal arteryAnterior tibial arteryFibular arteryDorsalis pedis artery(from top of foot)Plantar archMedial plantararteryLateral plantararteryPosterior tibialarteryFigure 19.26aR. externaljugular– superficial head and neckR. vertebral– cervical spinal cord and vertebraeR. brachiocephalic– R. side of head and R. upper limbSuperior vena cava– runs from union of brachiocephalic veins behind manubrium to R. atriumInferior vena cava– runs from junction of common iliac veins at L5 to R. atrium of heartR. atrium of heartL. brachiocephalic– L. side of head and L. upper limbIntracranialdural venous sinusesR. internal jugular– dural venous sinuses of the brainR. subclavian– R. head, neck, and upper limbSame as R. brachiocephalicR. axillaryAzygos system– drains much of thoraxL., R., and middlehepatic veins– liverVeins ofL. lower limb(a) Schematic flowchartL. and R. renal veins– kidneysLumbar veins(several pairs)– posterior abdominal wallR. suprarenal(L. suprarenal drainsinto L. renal vein)– adrenal glandsR. gonadal(L. gonadal drainsinto L. renal vein)– testis or ovaryVeins ofR. lower limbVeins ofR. upperlimbR. common iliac– pelvis and R. lower limbL. common iliac– pelvis and L. lower limbDiaphragmFigure 19.26bRenal veinSplenic veinBasilic veinBrachial veinCephalic veinDural venous sinusesExternal jugular veinVertebral veinInternal jugular veinSuperior vena cavaRight and leftbrachiocephalic veinsAxillary veinGreat cardiac veinHepatic veinsHepatic portal veinSuperior mesentericveinInferior vena cavaUlnar veinRadial veinCommon iliac veinExternal iliac veinInternal iliac veinDigital veinsFemoral veinGreat saphenous veinPopliteal veinPosterior tibial veinAnterior tibial veinSmall saphenous veinDorsal venous arch(b) Illustration, anterior view. The vessels of the pulmonary circulation are not shown. Dorsal metatarsal veinsInferior mesenteric veinMedian cubital veinSubclavian veinVeins of the head and trunkVeins that drainthe upper limbVeins that drainthe lower limbFigure 19.27a(a) Schematic flowchart Superior sagittal sinusInferiorsagittal sinusSuperficialtemporal veinOphthalmic veinFacial veinCavernoussinusStraightsinusTransversesinusOccipitalveinPosterior auricularveinSigmoid sinusExternal jugularveinVertebral veinSubclavian veinSuperior vena cavaBrachiocephalic veinsMiddle thyroid veinSuperior thyroid veinInternal jugular veinFigure 19.27b(b) Veins of the head and neck, right superficial aspectVertebral veinOphthalmic veinExternaljugular veinSuperficial temporalveinFacial veinOccipital veinPosteriorauricular veinInternal jugularveinSuperior and middlethyroid veinsBrachiocephalicveinSubclavian veinSuperiorvena cavaFigure 19.27c(c) Dural venous sinuses of the brainConfluenceof sinusesSuperior sagittalsinusFalx cerebriInferior sagittalsinusStraight sinusCavernoussinusTransversesinusesSigmoid sinusJugular foramenRight internaljugular veinFigure 19.28aAxillaryveinSubclavianveinExternaljugular veinInternaljugular veinBrachiocephalicveinsSuperiorvena cavaAccessoryhemiazygosveinBrachialveinMediancubitalveinHemiazygosveinRight and leftposterior intercostalveinsAzygosveinUlnarveinRadialveinDeep palmarvenous archMetacarpal veinsSuperficialpalmar venous archDigital veinsBasilicveinCephalicveinMedianantebrachialvein(a) Schematic flowchartFigure 19.28bRight subclavian veinBrachiocephalic veinsAxillary veinBrachial veinCephalic veinBasilic veinMedian cubital veinMedian antebrachialveinBasilic veinInternal jugular veinExternal jugular veinLeft subclavian veinSuperior vena cavaAzygos veinInferior vena cavaAscending lumbar veinAccessory hemiazygosveinHemiazygos veinPosterior intercostalsUlnar veinDeep palmar venous archSuperficial palmar venous archDigital veinsCephalic veinRadial vein(b) Anterior viewFigure 19.29aInferiorvena cavaInferior phrenic veinsHepatic veinsHepatic portal veinSuperior mesenteric veinSplenic veinInferiormesentericveinL. ascendinglumbar veinR. ascendinglumbar veinGonadal veinsRenal veinsSuprarenalveinsLumbar veinsHepaticportalsystemCystic veinExternal iliac veinInternal iliac veinsCommon iliac veins(a) Schematic flowchart.Figure 19.29b(b) Tributaries of the inferior vena cava. Venous drainage of abdominal organs not drained by the hepatic portal vein.Hepatic veinsInferior phrenicveinLeft suprarenalveinLeft ascendinglumbar veinLumbar veinsLeft gonadal veinCommon iliacveinInternal iliac veinRenal veinsInferior vena cavaRight suprarenalveinRight gonadalveinExternal iliacveinFigure 19.29c(c) The hepatic portal circulation. Hepatic veinsLiverSpleenGastric veinsInferior vena cavaInferior vena cava(not part of hepaticportal system)Splenic veinRight gastroepiploicveinInferiormesenteric veinSuperiormesenteric veinLarge intestineHepatic portal veinSmall intestineRectumFigure 19.30aSmallsaphenousveinFibular(peroneal)veinDorsalvenous archDorsalmetatarsalveins(a) Schematic flowchart of the anterior and posterior veinsAnteriorPosteriorInferiorvena cavaFemoral veinExternal iliac veinFemoral veinSmall saphenousveinFibular (peroneal)veinPlantar veinsDeep plantar archDigital veinsGreatsaphenousveinPoplitealveinAnteriortibial veinPosteriortibial veinDorsalispedisveinCommon iliac veinInternaliliac veinFigure 19.30bPopliteal veinCommon iliac veinFibular veinAnterior tibial veinDorsalis pedis veinDorsal venous archDorsal metatarsalveins(b) Anterior viewInternal iliac veinExternal iliac veinInguinal ligamentFemoral veinGreat saphenousvein (superficial)Small saphenousveinFigure 19.30c(c) Posterior viewGreat saphenousvein Popliteal veinAnterior tibial veinFibular veinSmall saphenousvein (superficial)Posterior tibial veinPlantar veinsDeep plantar archDigital veins

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