Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 6 The World of Islam, 600-1500

Tài liệu Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 6 The World of Islam, 600-1500: Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: The Rise of IslamSection 2: The Arab Empire and Its SuccessorsSection 3: Islamic CivilizationSection 4: The Culture of IslamVisual SummaryChapter Intro How can cities survive for thousands of years?Damascus may be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world and was conquered dozens of times. Caravan routes converged on the city, making it an important trade center. Today the marketplace in the old city sells food and clothing as well as the traditional handicrafts—high quality textiles, leather goods, filigreed gold, silver objects, inlaid wooden, copper, and brass articles—that made the city famous.• What might have been traded in addition to goods?• What makes cities survive?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1The Rise of IslamWhat are dominant religions in the world today?Chapter Intro 2The Arab Empire and Its SuccessorsWhy do people convert to a different faith?Chapter Intro 3Islamic CivilizationWhat factors m...

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Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: The Rise of IslamSection 2: The Arab Empire and Its SuccessorsSection 3: Islamic CivilizationSection 4: The Culture of IslamVisual SummaryChapter Intro How can cities survive for thousands of years?Damascus may be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world and was conquered dozens of times. Caravan routes converged on the city, making it an important trade center. Today the marketplace in the old city sells food and clothing as well as the traditional handicrafts—high quality textiles, leather goods, filigreed gold, silver objects, inlaid wooden, copper, and brass articles—that made the city famous.• What might have been traded in addition to goods?• What makes cities survive?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1The Rise of IslamWhat are dominant religions in the world today?Chapter Intro 2The Arab Empire and Its SuccessorsWhy do people convert to a different faith?Chapter Intro 3Islamic CivilizationWhat factors may have influenced social status in the Islamic Empire?Chapter Intro 4The Culture of IslamHow do the achievements of one culture help foster the growth of another?Chapter Preview-EndSection 1-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values In the 600s, the Arabian prophet Muhammad created the religion of Islam, which led to great changes in the social and political systems of Southwest Asia.Section 1-Key TermsContent VocabularysheikhAllahQuranIslam Hijrahhajjshari’ahAcademic Vocabularyrevelationssubmission Section 1-Key TermsPeople and PlacesArabian PeninsulaMakkahMuhammadKhadijaMuslimsMadinahBedouinFive Pillars of IslamABSection 1-Polling QuestionWould you feel comfortable traveling to a country in political disorder?A. YesB. NoSection 1The ArabsAfter the domestication of the camel, the trade routes of the Arabs expanded. Communities prospered, but tension among the rich and poor increased.Section 1Arabs were nomadic people who lived on the Arabian Peninsula. They were farmers and herded animals. For survival, Arabic tribes organized to help one another. Each tribe was ruled by sheikh.After the camel was domesticated, Arabs were able to expand the caravan trade into more of the desert. The Arabs (cont.)Section 1Most Arabs were polytheistic but believed in a supreme god called Allah. Makkah (Mecca) was an important city to the Arabs for religious and social purposes. The Arabs (cont.)ABCDSection 1Why did the trade routes on the Arabian Peninsula become more popular?A. There was political disorder in Mesopotamia and Egypt. B. The Arabs built rest stops for people and animals.C. A complex road system was developed.D. Maps became available to traders.Section 1The Life of MuhammadThe revelations of Muhammad led to the creation of the Islamic religion.Section 1Muhammad was married to a rich widow named Khadija. He would soon become a prophet and start the religion of Islam. Muhammad was disturbed by greediness he witnessed in Makkah. While meditating in the hills, he received revelations from the angel Gabriel.These messages were eventually written down in the holy book of Islam, the Quran. The Life of Muhammad (cont.)Southwest Asia in Muhammad’s Time, c. 600Section 1The word Islam means “peace through submission to the will of Allah.” Those who practice the religion of Islam are called Muslims.In 622 Muhammad and his followers traveled from Makkah to Madinah. This journey is known as the Hijrah.The people of Madinah and the bedouin became the first communities to convert to Islam. The Life of Muhammad (cont.)Section 1Muhammad and his army returned to Makkah and converted the people to Islam. One of the Five Pillars of Islam is the hajj, or pilgrimage to Makkah.The Life of Muhammad (cont.)ABCDSection 1At what age was Muhammad orphaned?A. Four B. FiveC. SixD. SevenSection 1The Teachings of MuhammadIslam, like Christianity and Judaism, is a monotheistic religion. Islam is also both a set of religious beliefs and a whole way of life.Section 1Islam is a monotheistic religion and offers the hope of an afterlife to all who follow the Five Pillars of Islam.Five Pillars of Islam:The Teachings of Muhammad (cont.)Belief–There is no deity but the One God and Muhammad is his messenger.Prayer–Muslims pray five times a day.Section 1Charity–They give part of their wealth to the poor.Fasting–During Ramadan, Muslims fast from food and drink from dawn to sunset.Pilgrimage–Believers make a pilgrimage to Makkah at least once in their lifetime.The Teachings of Muhammad (cont.)After Muhammad’s death, Muslim scholars also developed the shari’ah to regulate the daily life of Muslims.ABCDSection 1How is Islam similar to Christianity and Judaism?A. All three are monotheistic and believe in an afterlife. B. All three use symbols to represent their religion.C. All three believe that conversion is the main purpose of the religion.D. All three believe that clergy are closer to God than the laity.Section 1-EndSection 2-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaOrder and Security After the death of Muhammad, his successors organized the Arabs and set in motion a great expansion. Section 2-Key TermsContent VocabularycaliphjihadShiaSunnivizier sultanmosqueAcademic Vocabularyorientedcomplex Section 2-Key TermsPeople, Places, and EventsAbū BakrMu‘āwiyahUmayyad dynastyBattle of ToursAbbasid dynastyBaghdadHārūn al-RashīdSeljuk TurksSaladin MongolsABSection 2-Polling QuestionWhen people are dissatisfied with a political leader the community is weakened. A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 2Creation of an Arab EmpireIslam grew under the rule of Muhammad’s successors, but there was constant tension over choosing who should rule the empire.Section 2Muhammad was the accepted political and religious leader of the Islamic world. Following his death, the lack of a named successor or a male heir created problems of succession.Muhammad had daughters, but in a male-oriented society they would not be accepted as leaders.Creation of an Arab Empire (cont.)Section 2Muhammad’s father-in-law, Abū Bakr, was named Muhammad’s successor. He traveled with Muhammad and was his chief advisor.In 632 Abū Bakr was named caliph.Under Abū Bakr’s leadership, the Islamic Empire expanded. The Quran permitted jihad, which was the justification for expansion. Creation of an Arab Empire (cont.)Section 2The Arab army was led by brilliant generals and courageous soldiers who were bolstered by the belief that Muslim warriors were guaranteed a place in paradise if they died in battle.The Arab conquerors were tolerant of the peoples in the empire. Conversion to Islam was not required of the people.Creation of an Arab Empire (cont.)Spread of Islam, 632–750ABCDSection 2How was Muhammad’s successor chosen?A. His children became the rulers of Islam. B. Abū Bakr defeated rebel forces in a civil war.C. Abū Bakr was chosen caliph because of his closeness with Muhammad. D. Abū Bakr was elected because of his wealth and fame.Section 2The UmayyadsUnder the rule of the Umayyad dynasty, the Islamic Empire made many conquests, but there were internal struggles that led to a division of the community.Section 2The two caliphs following Abū Bakr were assassinated. In 656 Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, became caliph. He too would be assassinated after five years of rule. In 661 the governor of Syria, General Mu'āwiyah became caliph. He was known for using force only when necessary.The Umayyads (cont.)Section 2Mu′āwiyah made the office of caliph hereditary for his family. He established the Umayyad dynasty and moved the capital from Madinah to Damascus in Syria.The Arab Empire under Umayyad leadership extended its boundaries into Asia Minor and Spain. In 732 the Arab forces were defeated at the Battle of Tours, ending the expansion into Europe.The Umayyads (cont.)Section 2The Umayyad dynasty had gained wealth from its large empire and was influenced by the different cultures of the Persians and Byzantines. A revolt in 680 led to a split in Islam that exists today. Hussein, the son of Ali, led a rebellion against Umayyad rule and was defeated.The Umayyads (cont.)Section 2Islam was split into two groups. The Shia Muslims accept only the descendants of Ali as the true rulers of Islam. Sunni Muslims accepted the Umayyads as the rulers of Islam.The Umayyads (cont.)Arab Campaigns into FranceABCDSection 2What caused the split in Islam?A. Muhammad’s daughters wanted to rule the empire. B. Disagreement over the caliphate between descendants of Ali and the Umayyad rulers.C. Disagreement over the Five Pillars.D. Disagreement between Arabs and non-Arabs over political control of the empire.Section 2The Abbasid DynastyUnder the Abbasid dynasty, Islam experienced prosperity and a new cultural outlook.Section 2Non-Arabs resented the increasingly corrupt government of the Umayyad rule. In 750, Abū al-′Abbās overthrew the Umayyad dynasty and set up the Abbasid dynasty.The Abbasids moved the capital to Baghdad on the Tigris River.Persian influence encouraged a new cultural outlook, and judges, merchants, and government officials replaced warriors as the ideal citizens. The Abbasid Dynasty (cont.)Section 2The golden age of the Abbasid caliphate occurred with the rule of Hārūn al-Rashīd. The bureaucracy of the government became more complex, and a vizier advised the caliph.Financial and political corruption weakened the empire, and the provinces of the empire began to break away.The Abbasid Dynasty (cont.)ABCDSection 2What was the result of the Abbasids’ decision to relocate the capital to Baghdad?A. Non-Arabs revolted. B. Abbasid and Umayyad dynasties had a civil war.C. The empire was weakened.D. There was an increase in Persian influence and wealth from trade.Section 2Seljuk Turks and the CrusadesPolitical turmoil disrupted Southwest Asia after the Seljuk Turks became a powerful military force.Section 2In Egypt, the Fatimid dynasty grew strong from trade and created a strong army of non-native soldiers. One of these groups was the Seljuk Turks.The Seljuk Turks were a nomadic people from Asia who had distinguished themselves in battle. In 1055, a Turkish commander captured Baghdad and proclaimed himself sultan. Seljuk Turks and the Crusades (cont.)Abbasid Empire, 800Section 2In 1071, the Byzantine Empire attacked the Turks at Manzikert in modern-day Turkey. The Byzantines were easily defeated and looked to Europe for help.In 1096, the first crusades began to retake Muslim areas.After initial success against the Muslims, Christian forces were expelled by Saladin in 1169.Seljuk Turks and the Crusades (cont.)ABCDSection 2What event led to the Crusades?A. The Byzantines were routed at Manzikert by Arab forces.B. The rise of the Fatimid dynasty in Egypt.C. The death of Alexius I.D. The invasion of Europe by the Muslims. Section 2The MongolsThe violent invasion of the Mongols destroyed the old Islamic Empire established by the Arabs and created a new center of Islamic civilization in Cairo, Egypt.Section 2The Mongols were a pastoral, horse-riding people who lived in the Gobi region of Asia. These nomadic warriors were destructive and attempted to create terror to prevent people from fighting back.Led by leaders such as Ghengis Khan and Kublai Khan, the Mongols an empire that stretched from the Sea of Japan to the Caspian Sea.The Mongols (cont.)Section 2The Mongols captured Persia and Mesopotamia, ending the Abbasid dynasty. The Mongols destroyed schools, libraries, mosques, and palaces. Over time, the Mongols settled in the conquered areas and converted to Islam. The new center of Islamic civilization became Cairo, in Egypt.The Mongols (cont.)ABCDSection 2Where did the Mongols come from?A. Western Greece B. Southern EgyptC. Northern ChinaD. Eastern IndiaSection 2-EndSection 3-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaStruggle for Rights Though Islamic teaching says that all people are equal under Allah, this was not strictly the case in the Arab Empire. Section 3-Key TermsContent VocabularybazaardowryAcademic VocabularycompilederodedSection 3-Key TermsPeople and PlacesMoroccoCaspian SeaFatimidsCórdobaABSection 3-Polling QuestionDoes your community meet your needs for your lifestyle?A. YesB. NoSection 3Prosperity in the Islamic WorldGrowing trade and favorable geography allowed both urban and rural areas to flourish during the period of the Arab Empire.Section 3The Arab Empire was prosperous due to its trading system. Extensive trade was carried out within the empire and extended from Morocco to the Caspian Sea. Cities such as Baghdad, Cairo, and Damascus were commercial and cultural centers in the Arab Empire. Prosperity in the Islamic World (cont.)Section 3The Fatimids made Cairo one the greatest cities in the empire and in the world.Islamic cities, such the capital of Umayyad Spain, Córdoba, had a distinct physical appearance. Mosques and political buildings were built to be impressive. Prosperity in the Islamic World (cont.)Trade in Southwest Asia, 737–1212Section 3Public buildings and bazaars were an important part of Muslim cities.Even though the Arab Empire was more urbanized than other areas, most of the people still made their living by farming. Prosperity in the Islamic World (cont.)ABCDSection 3Which of the following was not one of the great cultural cities of the Arab Empire?A. Venice B. CairoC. DamascusD. Baghdad Section 3Islamic SocietyAccording to Islamic teaching, all groups are equal under the eyes of Allah. However, this was not strictly the case in the Arab Empire.Section 3Allah’s teachings were compiled in the Quran to teach Muslims how to live their lives. One facet of Islam is that all people are created equal.Slaves were not treated equally. Since Muslims could not be slaves, most of their slaves came from Africa or Asia.Islamic Society (cont.)Section 3Women were granted spiritual and political equality with men, but some of the rights they possessed were eroded by older customs. Women had male guardians and were required to cover virtually all parts of their bodies in public.Men could marry more than one wife, but few could afford the dowry to more than one bride.Islamic Society (cont.)ABCDSection 3Which of the following does not describe an article of clothing worn by Muslim women?A. Burka B. ChadorC. HijabD. DowrySection 3-EndSection 4-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaNew Technologies Islamic achievements in philosophy, science, history, and the arts had an important influence on European civilization.Section 4-Key TermsContent Vocabularyastrolabeminaretmuezzin arabesquesAcademic VocabularycommentarytransformSection 4-Key TermsPeople and PlacesIbn-RushdIbn Sīnā (Avicenna)Ibn-KhaldūnOmar KhayyámSāmarrā’GranadaABSection 4-Polling QuestionDo the achievements of other societies impact you today?A. YesB. NoSection 4Philosophy, Science, and HistoryIslamic advancements in philosophy, science, and history contributed to the world’s knowledge.Section 4The preservation of scholarly works was aided by paper, which was introduced from China in the eighth century. Muslim scholars translated the works of Aristotle and the Greek philosophers into Arabic.Philosophy, Science, and History (cont.)Section 4The Muslim philosopher Ibn-Rushd wrote a commentary of virtually all of Aristotle’s literary works.In mathematics, Muslims adopted and passed on the numerical system of India, including the use of zero. The mathematical discipline of algebra was also developed by Muslims.Philosophy, Science, and History (cont.)Section 4Muslims perfected the astrolabe, an instrument used for navigation. The astrolabe allowed Europeans to sail to the Americas.Ibn Sīnā wrote a medical encyclopedia that became the basic medical textbook for European students during medieval times.Ibn-Khaldūn was a prominent historian who wrote about the cyclical life of civilizations in Muqaddimah (Introduction to History).Philosophy, Science, and History (cont.)ABCDSection 4How did Europeans learn about the works of the Greek philosophers?A. Roman manuscriptsB. Translated works of Muslim scholarsC. Muslim tradersD. Muslim history books Section 4LiteratureThe Rubaiyat and The 1001 Nights are two major early Islamic works of literature that are still enjoyed today.Section 4Islamic literature influenced the culture of Southwest Asia.The Rubaiyat, written by Omar Khayyám, is one of the most familiar books of Middle Eastern literature.The anonymous stories of The Arabian Nights also called The 1001 Nights are a collection of folktales, fables, and romances that blend the natural with the supernatural.Literature (cont.)ABCDSection 4Which of the following literary works contains a collection of folktales and fables?A. Rubaiyat B. The 1001 Nights C. The AstrolabesD. Rushd’s AdventuresSection 4Art and ArchitectureMuslim art and architecture reflect the spiritual glory of Islam.Section 4The Great Mosque of Sāmarrā′ was the world’s largest mosque when it was built. It is famous for its minaret, which enabled the muezzin to ascend an outside spiral staircase to call the faithful to prayer daily.Located in southern Spain, the mosque at Córdoba contains hundreds of columns which transform the structure into a unique “forest of trees.”Art and Architecture (cont.)Section 4Islamic palaces also showcase the glory of Islamic power. In the castle of Alhambra in Granada, Spain, every inch of the fortress is covered in floral and abstract patterns.Islamic art and architecture are dominated by repeating geometric patterns called arabesques that completely cover the surface of objects.Art and Architecture (cont.)ABCDSection 4What is unique about the Great Mosque at Sāmarrā′?A. It was built by non-Muslims. B. It is constructed of limestone.C. It is not covered by arabesques.D. The staircase to the minaret is on the outside. Section 4-EndVS 1MUHAMMAD’S VISION and a Powerful New FaithIn A.D. 622, Muhammad began preaching a new religion—Islam.Arab leaders persecuted Muslims, but Muhammad led an army against them; for Muslims, he was a political, along with a religious, leader.The revelations of Allah (God) to Muhammad are written down in the Quran, or holy book of Islam.VS 2ARAB MUSLIMS Build an Empire In time, issues about who should be the caliph, or successor to Muhammad, resulted in a split between Sunni and Shia Muslims.Islamic zeal and territorial ambition led to vast conquests and an empire ruled first from Makkah, then Baghdad.The Seljuk Turks established a new Islamic dynasty in 1055; in 1071 they defeated Byzantine rulers who asked the European states for help.VS 3ISLAM Focuses On All Aspects of Muslim LifeCommerce and scholarship throve in the Islamic cities of Baghdad, Cairo, and Damascus.Social classes existed, but Islam granted merchants and women more status than most other cultures of the era.Muslim scholars preserved Greek learning while making significant advances in mathematics and medicine.Mosques and palaces testified to Islamic architectural innovation.VS-EndFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Chapter Trans MenuChapter Transparencies MenuChapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.Chapter TransUnit Timeline TransCnETransDFS Trans 1DFS Trans 2DFS Trans 3DFS Trans 4Vocab1sheikhthe ruler of an Arabic tribe, chosen from one of the leading families by a council of elders Vocab2AllahArabic for “God”; the supreme god of Islam Vocab3Quranthe holy scriptures of the religion of Islam Vocab4Islammonotheistic religion that emerged in the Arabian Peninsula during the seventh century A.D. Vocab5Hijrahthe journey of Muhammad and his followers to Madinah in 622, which became year 1 of the official calendar of Islam Vocab6hajja pilgrimage to Makkah, one of the requirements of the Five Pillars of Islam Vocab7shari’aha law code drawn up by Muslim scholars after Muhammad’s death; it provided believers with a set of practical laws to regulate their daily lives Vocab8revelationsdivine truths Vocab9submissionact of submitting to the control or authority of another Vocab10calipha successor of Muhammad as spiritual and temporal leader of the Muslims Vocab11jihad“struggle in the way of God” Vocab12Shiaa Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of Muhammed’s son-in-law Ali as the true rulers of Islam Vocab13Sunnia Muslim group that accepts only the descendants of the Umayyads as the true rulers of Islam Vocab14viziera high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries Vocab15sultan“holder of power,” the military and political head of state under the Seljuk Turks and the Ottomans Vocab16mosquea Muslim house of worship Vocab17orienteddirected toward the interests of a particular group Vocab18complexhaving many intricate parts Vocab19bazaara covered market in Islamic cities Vocab20dowrya gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride’s parents to her husband or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wifeVocab21compiledcollected and edited into a volume Vocab22erodeddiminished or destroyed by degrees Vocab23astrolabean instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the positions of stars Vocab24minaretthe tower of a mosque from which the muezzin calls the faithful to prayer five times a day Vocab25muezzinthe crier who calls the Muslim faithful to prayer from the minaret of a mosque Vocab26arabesquegeometric patterns repeated over and over to completely cover a surface with decoration Vocab27commentaryan explanatory treatise Vocab28transformto change the form or appearance of HelpClick the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. 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