Bài giảng TCP/IP - Chapter 14: Multicasting And Multicast Routing Protocols

Tài liệu Bài giảng TCP/IP - Chapter 14: Multicasting And Multicast Routing Protocols: Chapter 14MulticastingAndMulticastRouting ProtocolsCONTENTS INTRODUCTION MULTICAST ROUTING MULTICAST TREES MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS DVMRP MOSPF CBT PIM MBONEINTRODUCTION14.1Figure 14-1UnicastingIn unicast routing, the router forwards the received packet through only one of its interfaces.Figure 14-2MulticastingIn multicast routing, the router may forward the received packet through several of its interfaces.Figure 14-3:aMulticasting versus multiple unicastingFigure 14-3:bMulticasting versus multiple unicastingEmulation of multicasting through multiple unicasting is not efficient and may create long delays, particularly with a large group.MULTICAST ROUTING14.2MULTICASTTREES14.3In a source-based tree approach, the combination of source and group determines the tree. In the group-shared tree approach, the group determines the tree.MULTICASTROUTINGPROTOCOLS14.4Figure 14-4Multicast routing protocolsDVMRP14.5Figure 14-5Reverse path forwardingIn reverse path forwarding (RPF), th...

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Chapter 14MulticastingAndMulticastRouting ProtocolsCONTENTS INTRODUCTION MULTICAST ROUTING MULTICAST TREES MULTICAST ROUTING PROTOCOLS DVMRP MOSPF CBT PIM MBONEINTRODUCTION14.1Figure 14-1UnicastingIn unicast routing, the router forwards the received packet through only one of its interfaces.Figure 14-2MulticastingIn multicast routing, the router may forward the received packet through several of its interfaces.Figure 14-3:aMulticasting versus multiple unicastingFigure 14-3:bMulticasting versus multiple unicastingEmulation of multicasting through multiple unicasting is not efficient and may create long delays, particularly with a large group.MULTICAST ROUTING14.2MULTICASTTREES14.3In a source-based tree approach, the combination of source and group determines the tree. In the group-shared tree approach, the group determines the tree.MULTICASTROUTINGPROTOCOLS14.4Figure 14-4Multicast routing protocolsDVMRP14.5Figure 14-5Reverse path forwardingIn reverse path forwarding (RPF), the router forwards only the packets that have traveled the shortest path from the source to the router; all other copies are discarded.RPF prevents the formation of loops.Figure 14-6Reverse path broadcastingFigure 14-7RPF versus RPBRPB creates a shortest path broadcast tree from the source to each destination. It guarantees that each destination receives one and only one copy of the packet. Figure 14-8RPF, RPB, and RPMRPM adds pruning and grafting to RPB to create a multicast shortest path tree that supports dynamic membership changes.MOSPF14.6Figure 14-9Unicast tree and multicast treeCBT14.7Figure 14-10Shared-group tree with rendezvous routerFigure 14-11Sending a multicast packet to the rendezvous routerIn CBT, the source sends the multicast packet (encapsulated in a unicast packet) to the core router. The core router decapsulates the packet and forwards it to all interested hosts. PIM14.8PIM-DM is used in a dense multicast environment, such as a LAN environment.PIM-DM uses RPF and pruning/grafting strategies to handle multicasting. However, it is independent from the underlying unicast protocol.PIM-SM is used in a sparse multicast environment such as a WAN.PIM-SM is similar to CBT but uses a simpler procedure. MBONE14.9Figure 14-12Logical tunnelingFigure 14-13MBONEDVMRP supports MBONE

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