Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 8 Asian World, 400-1500

Tài liệu Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 8 Asian World, 400-1500: Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: China ReunifiedSection 2: The Mongols and ChinaSection 3: Early Japan and KoreaSection 4: India After the GuptasSection 5: Civilization in Southeast AsiaVisual SummaryChapter Intro How does architecture record history?Angkor Wat is a symbol of Cambodia and appears on its flag. First built by the Khmer as a Hindu temple, it has served as a Buddhist shrine since the fourteenth century. Although most of the walls have carvings of Hindu stories, there are images of the Buddha. In this chapter you will learn about the changes in the Asian world.• How does the architecture in your city or state relate to its history?• Which structures have been changed based on their use?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1China ReunifiedWhat was the result of the collapse of the Han dynasty?Chapter Intro 2The Mongols and ChinaWhat do you think were strengths of the Mongolian military?Chapter Intro 3Early Japan and KoreaHow did Japan’s geograph...

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Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: China ReunifiedSection 2: The Mongols and ChinaSection 3: Early Japan and KoreaSection 4: India After the GuptasSection 5: Civilization in Southeast AsiaVisual SummaryChapter Intro How does architecture record history?Angkor Wat is a symbol of Cambodia and appears on its flag. First built by the Khmer as a Hindu temple, it has served as a Buddhist shrine since the fourteenth century. Although most of the walls have carvings of Hindu stories, there are images of the Buddha. In this chapter you will learn about the changes in the Asian world.• How does the architecture in your city or state relate to its history?• Which structures have been changed based on their use?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1China ReunifiedWhat was the result of the collapse of the Han dynasty?Chapter Intro 2The Mongols and ChinaWhat do you think were strengths of the Mongolian military?Chapter Intro 3Early Japan and KoreaHow did Japan’s geography affect its development?Chapter Intro 4India After the GuptasWhich religions had a major impact in Indian society?Chapter Intro 5Civilizations in Southeast AsiaWhich civilizations most influenced Southeast Asia?Chapter Preview-EndSection 1-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaOrder and Security After centuries of chaos and civil war, three dynasties unified China, bringing peace, stability, and technological progress.Section 1-Key TermsContent Vocabularyscholar-gentrydowryAcademic VocabularyperiodcomplexitySection 1-Key TermsPeople and PlacesSui Yangdi Tibet Tang XuanzangUighurs Hangzhou Changan Marco Polo Wu Zhao ABSection 1-Polling QuestionDo you think a written test should be required for all jobs? A. YesB. NoSection 1Three DynastiesThe Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties restored peace to China in between periods of chaos and disorder.Section 1In 581 the Sui dynasty was established. The Sui dynasty is known for unifying China under one emperor.Sui Yangdi was the second ruler of the dynasty. He was a cruel ruler, and used forced labor to build the Grand Canal, connecting the Huang He (Yellow River) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze River).Sui Yangdi’s oppressive policies led to a rebellion that ended the empire. Three Dynasties (cont.)Empires in China, 581–1279Section 1The Tang dynasty came to power in 618. Tang rulers restored civil service exams for government positions. The Tang dynasty extended the borders of the empire to Tibet in the southwest.Emperor Tang Xuanzang and other Tang rulers were unable to prevent plotting and corruption in the government.Three Dynasties (cont.)Section 1Tang rulers hired Uighurs to put down rebellions but continued unrest led to the fall of the dynasty in 907.Three Dynasties (cont.)Section 1In 960 the Song dynasty came to power. The Song ruled during a time period of economic prosperity and cultural achievement.Because of threats from nomadic warriors to the north, the Song moved their capital farther south to Hangzhou.Three Dynasties (cont.)Dynasties of ChinaABCDSection 1Why did the Tang dynasty hire Uighurs? A. To build the Grand CanalB. To build the Great WallC. To defend the empire from nomadic warriorsD. To defend the empire from rebellions Section 1Government and EconomyFor 700 years, the Chinese economy grew in size and sophistication.Section 1During the rule of the Sui, Tang, and Song dynasties, the Chinese government and economy grew in size and complexity.The Song government weakened the power of large landholders and helped poor peasants get their own land, which led to an abundance of food.Government and Economy (cont.)Section 1The economy was still based on agriculture, but technological advances led to development of steel and gunpowder. International and domestic trade also increased and the Silk Road was renewed. Changan became the wealthiest city in the world during the Tang era.Government and Economy (cont.)ABCDSection 1What did the Chinese not export via the Silk Road? A. Porcelain B. IvoryC. SilkD. TeaSection 1Chinese SocietyThe political stability established by the three dynasties allowed Chinese society to grow in complexity.Section 1In the late 1200s, the Italian merchant Marco Polo described Hangzhou as one of the largest and most beautiful cities in the world.Chinese society developed into a complex mixture of landowners, free peasants, sharecroppers, and landless laborers. Chinese Society (cont.)Section 1Most significant was the rise of the landed gentry, called the scholar-gentry, who became the political and economic elite of Chinese society.Few women had any power. An exception was Wu Zhao, known as Empress Wu, who ruled for half a century.When a woman was married, her family was expected to give a dowry to the husband. Poor families sold their daughters.Chinese Society (cont.)ABCDSection 1Which of the following is an example of a dowry? A. Civil service exam B. SharecropperC. MoneyD. Block printingSection 1-EndSection 2-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values Shifts in religious belief caused major changes in the organization of Chinese society, which were intensified when the Mongol Empire conquered China. Section 2-Key TermsContent Vocabularykhanate neo-ConfucianismporcelainAcademic VocabularyacquiredavailablevisionSection 2-Key TermsPeople and PlacesMongolia Genghis Khan Gobi Kublai Khan Beijing Li Bo Du Fu ABSection 2-Polling QuestionMilitary innovations are necessary to become an empire. A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 2The MongolsThe Mongols created the world’s largest land empire by conquering all of China.Section 2The Mongols under Genghis Khan created the largest land empire ever. The Mongols were a pastoral people from the Gobi in what is present-day Mongolia.In 1206 Genghis Khan was elected the ruler of the Mongols. He immediately devoted his life to conquest.Upon Genghis Khan’s death in 1227, the empire was divided into khanates.The Mongols (cont.)Mongol Empire, 1294Section 2In 1279, Kublai Khan, the grandson of Genghis Khan, conquered the Song dynasty and established the Yuan dynasty in China.Kublai Khan established his capital at Khanbalik, in what is present-day Beijing.While the Mongols were successful in ruling China, they were unsuccessful in attacking Southwest Asia.The Mongols (cont.)The Mongol Dynasty in ChinaSection 2The Mongols were finally unseated by internal instability, political corruption, and excessive military spending. In 1368 an uprising by Zhu Yuanzhang led to the Ming dynasty. The Mongols (cont.)ABCDSection 2Why were the Mongols unsuccessful in attacking Southwest Asia? A. Their cavalry charges were not effective in tropical regions.B. They did not have the navy to support long wars.C. A disease epidemic ravaged the Mongolian army. D. Kublai Khan was killed while fighting in Southwest Asia. Section 2Religion and GovernmentBetween the Han and Yuan dynasties, religion’s role in Chinese government changed.Section 2Buddhism and Daoism became increasingly popular during the Tang dynasty.Buddhist monasteries acquired thousands of acres of lands and serfs.Buddhists taught that everything in the material world is an illusion. This was contrary to Confucian teachings of devotion to family and work.Religion and Government (cont.)Section 2Beginning in the Song dynasty, government officials supported neo-Confucianism, which stated that the world is real and that satisfaction comes from participation.Religion and Government (cont.)ABCDSection 2Why was Buddhism unpopular with the Chinese government?A. It taught about equality for everyone.B. It taught that rebellions were justified.C. The Buddhists were mostly non-Chinese.D. It was contrary to Confucian beliefs of devotion to family and work. Section 2A Golden Age in Literature and ArtWith the invention of printing, a golden age of literature and art emerged in China.Section 2The golden age of Chinese literature occurred during the Tang and Ming dynasties.The invention of the printing press helped to make literature more available to people.Poetry, as expressed by Tang-era poets Li Bo and Du Fu, was especially important to Chinese literature. A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.)Section 2Painting was an important art form during imperial China. Influenced by the Daoist vision, landscape painting reached its height.Tang artisans perfected the making of porcelain.A Golden Age in Literature and Art (cont.)ABCDSection 2What inspired the Chinese painters to paint scenes of nature? A. Buddhism B. DaoismC. ConfucianismD. HinduismSection 2-EndSection 3-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaPhysical Geography The geography of Japan, a string of islands, and of Korea, a peninsula bordering China, have had a huge impact on their respective histories.Section 3-Key TermsContent Vocabularysamurai Bushido shogun daimyo Shinto Zen Academic VocabularyrevenuecodeSection 3-Key TermsPeople and PlacesŌsaka Kyōto Shōtoku TaishiMinamoto YoritomoMurasaki ShikibuYi Sŏng-gye ABSection 3-Polling QuestionCentralized power is the only way a successful government can govern. A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 3Early JapanJapan’s history has been marked by power struggles between rulers and independent families.Section 3Early Japanese society was made up of a small ruling class of aristocrats and a large population of farmers.The people lived in clans in the Yamato Plain near what are now the cities of Ōsaka and Kyōto.Prince Shōtoku Taishi tried to unify the clans of Japan. He emulated the Chinese system of government and established centralized power.Early Japan (cont.)Early JapanSection 3In the Nara Period, the emperor began to call himself the “Son of Heaven.”The aristocrats kept tax revenues for themselves, and the centralized national government lost power and influence.During the Heian Period there was little centralized power, so the aristocratic families sought the protection of samurai.Early Japan (cont.)Mongol Campaigns, 1200sSection 3The samurai lived by a warrior code known as Bushido.Minamoto Yoritomo defeated the rival clans and set up a centralized government under the control of a shogun.Fighting the Mongols put a strain on the political system and the shogunate was overthrown.Early Japan (cont.)Section 3The collapse of central rule coincided with the rise of daimyo. The noble families constantly warred with each other, and by 1500, Japan was in chaos.Early Japan (cont.)ABCDSection 3What gave rise to the samurai? A. The lack of soldiers B. The lack of central authorityC. The need to protect the emperor from internal strife D. The need to protect Japanese tradeSection 3Life in Early JapanJapan’s small size and relative isolation have had a major effect on the development of its economy, religion, and culture.Section 3Farming provided the basis of the Japanese economy, although only about 11% of the land was tillable.Trade between regions began to increase. Japan traded raw materials and manufactured items in return for silk, porcelain, books, and copper coins.In Japanese society, women were subordinate to men. Aristocratic women were active in society and the arts.Life in Early Japan (cont.)Section 3Japanese religion was centered around the worship of spirits and became known as Shinto.Among aristocrats, a sect of Buddhism known as Zen became popular. Zen would be adopted by the samurai as well.During the history of early Japan, it was considered beneath men to write fiction. Thus, women such as Mursaki Shikibu rose to prominence.Life in Early Japan (cont.)ABCDSection 3Which of the following groups accepted Zen Buddhism in early Japan?A. Samurai B. MerchantsC. PeasantsD. WomenSection 3The Emergence of KoreaThe early history of Korea was marked by the presence of dominating neighbors.Section 3Korea is a mountainous peninsula. Its proximity to China and Japan has greatly influenced Korean history.The Koryo dynasty emulated Chinese political systems.The Koryo accepted Mongol rule in the thirteenth century. This led to the fall of the dynasty.In 1392 Yi Sŏng-gye seized power and founded the Yi dynasty.The Emergence of Korea (cont.)ABCDSection 3Which of the following groups did not influence Korean history? A. Mongols B. PersiansC. JapaneseD. ChineseSection 3-EndSection 4-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values When Islamic peoples conquered much of India, tension arose between the Muslim rulers and the majority Hindu population. Section 4-Key TermsContent VocabularyTheravada Mahayana Academic VocabularyretainedtraditionalSection 4-Key TermsPeople and PlacesGhazna (Ghaznī)Mahmūd of GhaznaRajputs sultanate of DelhiTimur Lenk Samarqand Moguls Dandin ABSection 4-Polling QuestionDo you think religion, society, and culture are impacted by one another?A. YesB. NoSection 4The Impact of ReligionBuddhism, Hinduism, and Islam all influenced the development of India.Section 4The people of India retained a widespread acceptance of Buddhism for centuries. People did not always agree on the teachings of Buddha, and split, in Buddhism occurred.The followers who believed Buddhism was a life philosophy became known as the school of Theravada.The Impact of Religion (cont.)Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam in IndiaSection 4The followers who believed Buddhism was a religion became known as the school of Mahayana.Buddhism eventually lost influence in India although it was transported abroad with much success.Early in the eighth century Arab armies brought Islam to northwest India. In the tenth century rebellious Turkish slaves founded the Islamic state of Ghazna (Ghaznī).The Impact of Religion (cont.)Section 4Timur Lenk attacked the capital of Delhi in the fourteenth century. He massacred as many as 100,000 Hindu prisoners at the gates of the city. The Impact of Religion (cont.)In 997, Mahmūd of Ghazna attacked Hindu kingdoms to the southeast. Mahmūd’s forces defeated the Rajputs and extended Muslim power to the new state of the sultanate of Delhi.Section 4Timur Lenk ruled a Mongol state called Samarqand. His death in 1405 rid India and Asia of a tyrannical ruler and allowed the Moguls and Portuguese to gain influence in the region. The Impact of Religion (cont.)ABCDSection 4How was the reign of Mahmūd of Ghazna different from his father’s? A. Mahmūd was tolerant of other religions.B. Mahmūd attacked Hindu kingdoms in the south.C. Mahmūd supported the Hindu kingdoms in the south.D. Mahmūd conquered the Chinese. Section 4Indian Society and CultureThe ruling class of India was made up of Muslims, but some members of the Hindu population also prospered. The rich culture of India was reflected in its art, literature, architecture, and technological advances.Section 4Muslim rulers in India maintained strict separation between Muslims and Hindus. This relationship led to suspicion and distrust between the two groups.India’s location and traditional trade routes made it a center for trade between Southwest and East Asia.Between 500 and 1500, religious architecture in India developed from caves to magnificent structures such as Hindu temples and towers.Indian Society and Culture (cont.)Section 4The use of prose in fiction was established in India by the sixth and seventh centuries, much earlier than most civilizations.Indian Society and Culture (cont.)One of the greatest authors of Sanskrit prose was Dandin, who penned The Adventures of Ten Princes. ABCDSection 4Why did the Islamic rulers in India not force the populace to convert to Islam? A. It is forbidden in the Quran to force others to convert.B. Muslims were tolerant of Hindus.C. Indians were non-Arabs.D. There were too many Hindus.Section 4-EndSection 5-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaPhysical Geography The mountains, river valleys, and islands of Southeast Asia had a major effect on its political, cultural, and economic development.Section 5-Key TermsContent Vocabularyarchipelago agricultural societytrading societyAcademic VocabularyregionareaSection 5-Key TermsPeople and PlacesMalay PeninsulaVietnam Angkor Jayavarman Pagan Thai Thailand Strait of MalaccaMelaka ABSection 5-Polling QuestionDo you think the monuments in the United States are comparable to monuments in other societies?A. YesB. NoSection 5The Formation of StatesThe geography of Southeast Asia led to the development of distinct cultures throughout the region.Section 5Between 500 and 1500, a number of organized states developed throughout Southeast Asia. These states were influenced by the unique geography of Southeast Asia.The region known today as Southeast Asia is dominated by a mainland that extends from China to the Malay Peninsula, and an archipelago which includes Indonesia and the Philippines.The Formation of States (cont.)Southeast Asia, 1200Section 5The area of Southeast Asia contains a vast array of races, cultures, and religions. The geographical barriers of the region encouraged the development of separate cultures.Vietnam was one of the first states to develop its own identity.Vietnam was heavily influenced by China, as Vietnam warred with its neighbor and eventually copied its system of government.The Formation of States (cont.)Section 5Jayavarman II united the Khmer people and created the kingdom of Angkor in the ninth century.The proximity to enemies, such as the Burmese kingdom of Pagan and the arrival of the Thai people in 1300, signaled the end of the Angkor Kingdom. The Formation of States (cont.)States of Southeast Asia, 111 B.C.–A.D. 1600Section 5The Thai people established their empire on the Chao Phraya River. They were influenced by a combination of Hindu and Buddhist beliefs which became the modern culture of Thailand.The inhabitants of Burma were a pastoral people who grew wealthy and influential from trade in the region.The Formation of States (cont.)Section 5The Malay region was divided between the mainland peninsula and the islands of Indonesia. This kingdom was never unified because of geographical barriers.The people of the Malay kingdom grew wealthy from controlling trade passing through the Strait of Malacca.The Muslim city of Melaka became an important trading post on the peninsula. It was also influential in the spread of Islam in the region.The Formation of States (cont.)ABCDSection 5What was the biggest factor in Southeast Asia not uniting under one government? A. Religion B. GeographyC. ClimateD. Weak leadershipSection 5Life in Southeast AsiaThe growth of the states of Southeast Asia depended largely on trade and agriculture.Section 5The states of Southeast Asia can be categorized into two groups: agricultural societies and trading societies.Economic and political power in Southeast Asia was held by hereditary aristocrats. Farmers, fishermen, artisans, and merchants comprised the rest of the society.Life in Southeast Asia (cont.)Section 5Women in Southeast Asia received more rights than in proximate regions.Hinduism and Buddhism were both popular in Southeast Asia, and Theravada Buddhism eventually became the religion of the masses.Life in Southeast Asia (cont.)ABCDSection 5Which of the following is not a reason why Buddhism became so popular in Asia? A. It was accepted by the rulers.B. It taught that nirvana can be reached by individual efforts.C. People do not need priests or rulers.D. Buddhism tolerated local gods. Section 5-EndVS 1CHINA’S DYNASTIESThe Tang dynasty, stable for 300 years, renewed trade in silk and porcelain over the Silk Road.The Song dynasty took over in the 900s and vastly increased crop yields and trade.In the 800s, the scholar-gentry class emerged, an influential group down to 1911, while a revived, practical Confucianism was dominant in religion.Northern invaders, always a threat, finally triumphed with the Mongol Invasion in 1270.Chinese poetry and ceramics were inspired by nature and Confucian philosophy.VS 2JAPAN AND KOREAThe islands of Japan are isolated and mountainous.The heads of Japanese noble families, daimyos, competed for power with fighting samurai, which led to frequent civil wars.The religion of Shinto contributed to emperor worship, while Buddhism’s spirituality appealed to other Japanese.Korea, dominated by nearby China, and borrowing many cultural elements, finally gained its independence in the 900s.VS 3SOUTH AND SOUTHEAST ASIAIndia fragmented into many states in the medieval period; later rulers from the north introduced Islam, but Hinduism remained the religion of most Indians.In Southeast Asia, new states were influenced by the Chinese and Indian examples in both government and religion.The trade in spices was profitable for several southeastern Asian states.VS-EndFigure 1Figure 2Figure 2aFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Chapter Trans MenuChapter Transparencies MenuChapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.Chapter TransUnit Timeline TransCnETransDFS Trans 1DFS Trans 2DFS Trans 3DFS Trans 4DFS Trans 5Vocab1scholar-gentryin China, a group of people who controlled much of the land and produced most of the candidates for the civil service Vocab2dowrya gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride’s parents to her husband or, in Islamic societies, by a husband to his wifeVocab3periodan interval of time Vocab4complexitythe state of being complex or of having many intricate parts Vocab5khanateone of the several separate territories into which Genghis Khan’s empire was split, each under the rule of one of his sons Vocab6neo-Confucianisma revised form of Confucianism that evolved as a response to Buddhism and held sway in China from the late Tang dynasty to the end of the dynastic system in the twentieth century Vocab7porcelaina ceramic made of fine clay baked at very high temperatures Vocab8acquiredcame into possession or control of Vocab9availableready for immediate use; accessible Vocab10visionthe way of seeing or believing Vocab11samurai“those who serve,” Japanese warriors similar to the knights of medieval Europe Vocab12Bushido“the way of the warrior,” the strict code by which Japanese samurai were supposed to live Vocab13shogun“general,” a powerful military leader in Japan Vocab14daimyo“great names,” heads of noble families in Japan who controlled vast landed estates and relied on samurai for protection Vocab15Shinto“the Sacred Way” or “the way of the gods,” the Japanese state religion; among its doctrines are the divinity of the emperor and the sacredness of the Japanese nation Vocab16Zena sect of Buddhism that became popular with Japanese aristocrats and became part of the samurai’s code of behavior; under Zen Buddhism, there are different paths to enlightenment Vocab17revenuethe yield of sources of income that a nation or state collects and deposits into its treasury for public use Vocab18codea system of principles or rules Vocab19Theravada“the teachings of the elders,” a school of Buddhism that developed in India; its followers view Buddhism as a way of life, not a religion, centered on individual salvation Vocab20Mahayanaa school of Buddhism that developed in northwest India, stressing the view that nirvana can be achieved through devotion to the Buddha; its followers consider Buddhism a religion, not a philosophy, and the Buddha is a divine figure Vocab21retainedkept in possession or use Vocab22traditionalestablished; customary Vocab23archipelagoa chain of islands Vocab24agricultural societya group of people whose economy is largely based on farming Vocab25trading societya group of people who depend primarily on trade for income Vocab26regiona broad geographic area distinguished by similar features Vocab27areaa geographic region HelpClick the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. 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