Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 7 Early African Civillizations, 2000 B.C-A.D. 1500

Tài liệu Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 7 Early African Civillizations, 2000 B.C-A.D. 1500: Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Development of African CivilizationsSection 2: Kingdoms and States of AfricaSection 3: African Society and CultureVisual SummaryChapter Intro How does the environment impact where we live?Mali’s Bandiagara escarpment is a sandstone cliff that rises about 1640 feet (500 m) above sand flats. When the Tellem built houses in the cliffs, they probably used vines to reach them. Over the years the climate has changed, and drought has reduced the vegetation. Today the Dogon people farm and live above or below the cliffs. In this chapter you will learn about Africa’s civilizations.• Why might people choose not to live in existing houses?• What types of natural disasters destroy housing in the United States?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Development of African CivilizationsWhat geographic factors do you think affected the development of African civilizations?Chapter Intro 2Kingdoms and States of AfricaWhat do you think were ke...

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Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Development of African CivilizationsSection 2: Kingdoms and States of AfricaSection 3: African Society and CultureVisual SummaryChapter Intro How does the environment impact where we live?Mali’s Bandiagara escarpment is a sandstone cliff that rises about 1640 feet (500 m) above sand flats. When the Tellem built houses in the cliffs, they probably used vines to reach them. Over the years the climate has changed, and drought has reduced the vegetation. Today the Dogon people farm and live above or below the cliffs. In this chapter you will learn about Africa’s civilizations.• Why might people choose not to live in existing houses?• What types of natural disasters destroy housing in the United States?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Development of African CivilizationsWhat geographic factors do you think affected the development of African civilizations?Chapter Intro 2Kingdoms and States of AfricaWhat do you think were key factors in the strength of early African kingdoms?Chapter Intro 3African Society and CultureWhat other cultures do you think influenced African culture?Chapter Preview-EndSection 1-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaPhysical Geography The widely varied geography of Africa influenced its culture and trade. Section 1-Key TermsContent Vocabularyplateau savannaAcademic Vocabularyso-calledresourcesSection 1-Key TermsPeople and PlacesSaharaGreat Rift ValleyCongo RiverKalahari DesertNubiaKushitesEthiopiaKing ‘Ezānā ABSection 1-Polling QuestionThe landforms and climate zones of a region are the most important influences on how people live. A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 1The Impact of GeographyAfrica includes a wide variety of landforms and a number of different climate zones that have influenced its history and culture.Section 1Landforms of Africa:In the north, mountains run along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Nile River empties into the Mediterranean, and the Sahara is the largest desert in the world.The so-called hump of Africa extends to the Atlantic Ocean in the west. Here the Sahara gradually gives way to grasslands, while the coastal regions are mostly tropical jungles. The Impact of Geography (cont.)Section 1Eastern Africa has a unique terrain of mountains, upland plateaus, and lakes. The Great Rift Valley contains mountains overlooking deep canyons. Wildlife is abundant in this region.In the south, the mighty Congo River waters the Congo Basin, an area of lush vegetation. These tropical jungles gradually fade into the plateaus and deserts, such as the Kalahari, that dominate the south.The Impact of Geography (cont.)Section 1Africa has four distinct climate zones: The Impact of Geography (cont.)Mild climate of the north: 10%Sahara and Kalahari Deserts: 40%Rain forest: 10%Savannas: 40%Climate Zones and Geography of AfricaABCDSection 1In which region of Africa would you find lakes such as Victoria, Albert, Tanganyika, and Malawi? A. North B. EastC. WestD. SouthSection 1Emerging Civilizations and ReligionsKush and Axum arose as strong early civilizations. Later, Islam would influence Africa.Section 1The Agricultural Revolution gave rise to the African civilizations of Egypt, Kush, and Axum.By 2000 B.C., Egyptian traders were traveling to Nubia to acquire ivory, ebony, and leopard skins. Around 1000 B.C., Nubia became the state of Kush. Emerging Civilizations and Religions (cont.)The Kingdoms of Kush and AxumSection 1The Kushite capital of Meroë was a major trading center. It was located where a land route across the desert met the Nile River.Kush had an abundance of resources, such as iron ore. Kush was an urban society and eventually declined because of the rise of Axum.Emerging Civilizations and Religions (cont.)Section 1Axum, located in what is now Ethiopia, conquered Kush in the fourth century A.D.King ‘Ezānā of Axum converted to Christianity, which became the official state religion. Islam, which began on the Arabian Peninsula, soon spread to northern and eastern Africa in the seventh and eighth centuries A.D.Emerging Civilizations and Religions (cont.)ABCDSection 1What enabled the kingdoms of Kush and Axum to flourish?A. Farming B. FishingC. TradeD. Military powerSection 1-EndSection 2-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaOrder and Security The expansion of trade enabled the kingdoms and states of Africa to protect their people and to prosper. Section 2-Key TermsContent Vocabularysubsistence farmingSwahili stateless societyAcademic VocabularyfactoradministrativesecuritySection 2-Key TermsPeople and PlacesGhanaBerbersSundiata KeitaMaliTimbuktuMansa MūsāSunni AliMuhammad TureBantuMogadishuMombasaKilwaIbn BattutaZimbabweABSection 2-Polling QuestionDo you think spices would have been as valuable as gold to ancient civilizations? A. YesB. NoSection 2The Kingdom of GhanaTrade in gold helped create a strong economy in Ghana, bringing wealth to its merchants and its kings.Section 2Ghana became the first great trading state in West Africa around A.D. 500.Ghana contained an abundant supply of gold and iron ore.The Berbers brought goods such as salt, textiles, and metal goods from the Mediterranean Sea region in exchange for Ghanaian gold, iron, ivory, and slaves.The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.)Trade in West Africa, 800–1500Section 2Camel caravans were crucial in the trade across the Sahara.Ghanaian kings grew wealthy from taxing the trade between the regions. Islamic merchants also became wealthy during this exchange of goods.The Kingdom of Ghana (cont.)Trade in West Africa, 800–1500ABCDSection 2Who carried goods across the desert? A. Muslims B. ArmyC. SlavesD. BerbersSection 2The Kingdom of MaliPowerful leadership helped Mali thrive.Section 2After the fall of Ghana, Sundiata Keita established the Kingdom of Mali in the middle of the thirteenth century.Sundiata united the people of Mali and defeated the Ghanaians in 1240.The empire of Mali extended from the Atlantic Ocean to Timbuktu. Local administrative leaders collected taxes for the king.The Kingdom of Mali (cont.)Section 2Mansa Mūsā came to power in 1312. He doubled the size of the kingdom and created a strong, centralized government.Mansa Mūsā made a pilgrimage to Makkah in which he demonstrated his wealth and power. He was joined by thousands of soldiers and servants, and gave gold to the peoples along the way. The Kingdom of Mali (cont.)Section 2Mansa Mūsā’s pilgrimage inspired him to make Timbuktu an intellectual center of Islamic learning and culture.The Mali kingdom began to decline with civil war and the rise of the Songhai Kingdom. The Kingdom of Mali (cont.)ABCDSection 2Which of the following was a result of Mansa Mūsā’s pilgrimage? A. He conquered Makkah.B. He decided to convert to Islam.C. He began to trade with the Arabs.D. He made Timbuktu a center of Islamic education.Section 2The Kingdom of SonghaiSituated along the Niger River, the Songhai became powerful traders.Section 2In 1464, Sunni Ali united the rural and urban people along the Niger River. He established the Kingdom of Songhai.The Songhai grew wealthy from controlling trade on the river. They captured Timbuktu and Djenné, gaining more wealth from the salt and gold trade. The height of the Songhai Kingdom came under Muhammad Ture, a military leader and devout Muslim. The Kingdom of Songhai (cont.)Section 2Muhammad Ture continued the expansionist policies of his predecessor. His large military was able to maintain peace and security throughout the empire.The Songhai Empire ended when the sultan of Morocco’s forces occupied the country near the end of the sixteenth century.The Kingdom of Songhai (cont.)ABCDSection 2How did military expansion help the Songhai people? A. It gave them control of the salt and gold trade.B. It gave them more land for farming. C. It gave them more land for recruiting soldiers. D. It gave them more technology.Section 2Societies in East AfricaThe migration of the Bantu and Indian Ocean trade changed East Africa.Section 2The Bantu communities were based on subsistence farming. They also spread across Africa their knowledge of iron-smelting and high-yield crops such as yams and bananas.The Bantu settled in trading communities along the coast of the Indian Ocean.Societies in East Africa (cont.)The Bantu MigrationSection 2Great Zimbabwe was a prosperous city on the coast. Muslims began to settle with the Bantu people on the coast. They formed commercial port cities such as Mogadishu, Mombasa, and Kilwa.Societies in East Africa (cont.)Indian Ocean TradeSection 2Ibn Battuta, an Arab traveler who went through most of the Muslim countries and China, remarked that Kilwa was one of the most beautiful cities in the world.Eventually, the cultures of the Bantu and Muslim traders mixed and formed a new culture known as Swahili.Societies in East Africa (cont.)ABCDSection 2What is subsistence farming? A. Growing crops for personal useB. Growing crops to trade C. Growing crops for livestock D. Growing crops for a king or governmentSection 2Societies in South AfricaIn southern Africa, independent villages organized into states, the most powerful of which was Zimbabwe.Section 2In southern Africa, most of the people lived in stateless societies, which were groups of independent villages organized by clans and led by a local ruler. Zimbabwe was the wealthiest and most powerful state in the region, trading gold to the Swahili communities on the east coast of Africa.Societies in South Africa (cont.)Section 2The capital of the kingdom was Great Zimbabwe. The city was surrounded by The Great Enclosure that illustrated the kingdom’s power and influence. Eventually, it was abandoned.Societies in South Africa (cont.)ABCDSection 2What was unique about Great Zimbabwe?A. It was built on an island.B. It was built on a volcano.C. It was surrounded with a massive stone wall.D. Public buildings were lined with gold.Section 2-EndSection 3-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values African society was centered on village and family life, with distinct religious beliefs and a rich culture.Section 3-Key TermsContent Vocabularylineage groupmatrilinealpatrilinealdivinergriotAcademic VocabularyfoundingcultureSection 3-Key TermsPeople and PlacesYorubaNigeriaAshantilfeBeninABSection 3-Polling QuestionThere’s a traditional African saying that it takes a village to educate a child. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 3Aspects of African SocietyAfrican society was strongly influenced by values and customs, such as the importance of the family, common ancestors, and community education.Section 3African kings were generally closer to the people than in other societies. The king often spoke with commoners about complaints or other issues.For most Africans, life consisted of a village and their sense of identity to an extended family or clan, consisting of parents, children, grandparents, and other family dependents.Aspects of African Society (cont.)Section 3Families lived in larger communities known as lineage groups. Elders maintained the power in the group.While women were generally subordinate to men in Africa, many societies were matrilineal rather than patrilineal societies. In typical African villages, a child’s education was a shared responsibility by parents and village elders. Aspects of African Society (cont.)Section 3Africans utilized slave labor, like many other ancient societies.Slaves included people captured in war, debtors, and criminals, and became an important commodity to be traded.Aspects of African Society (cont.)ABCDSection 3In a typical African village, who was responsible for the education of children up to age six? A. MotherB. FatherC. GrandmotherD. Grandfather Section 3Religious BeliefsMost African societies held similar, traditional beliefs; the spread of Islam challenged these African beliefs.Section 3Although African religious beliefs varied from place to place, most shared the idea of a single creator god.In Nigeria, the Yoruba people believe that their chief god sent his son down from heaven in a canoe to create the first humans. Many slaves transported to America practiced this religion. Religious Beliefs (cont.)Religion in AfricaSection 3The Ashanti people of Ghana believed in a supreme joined by a group of lesser gods. Because the lesser gods could not be trusted, humans needed to appease them to avoid their wrath.Africans communicated with the gods via diviners. Religious Beliefs (cont.)Religion in AfricaSection 3There were rituals dedicated to founding ancestors. Ancestors were seen as closer to the gods, and were needed for positive influence over everyday life.The influence of Islam followed the Arab traders, and Islam gained in popularity because of its acceptance by the wealthy and upper class.Religious Beliefs (cont.)Religion in AfricaSection 3Islam often ran in contrast to traditional African religion. Over time, a unique form of Africanized Islam appeared.Religious Beliefs (cont.)Religion in AfricaABCDSection 3Why were ancestors worshipped in traditional African religion? A. To give thanks for family B. To please the ancestors, as they could influence their descendentsC. To pray for the future generations of the clanD. The dead were thought to be gods.Section 3African CultureAfrica’s rich culture of paintings, carvings, sculpture, music, and dance often served a religious purpose.Section 3Early African art was influenced by religion.Rock paintings, wood carvings, and terra cotta figurines are all thought to have religious significance.At Ife, the capital of the Yoruba people, metalworkers fashioned handsome bronze and iron statues. These works are thought to have influenced the artists in Benin, where bronze heads of royalty and animals were produced.African Culture (cont.)Section 3African dance and music often served a religious purpose.Griots transmitted African history by song or storytelling. African Culture (cont.)ABCDSection 3Why were storytellers important to African tradition? A. They often made kings seem more powerful in their stories.B. They gave Africans the opportunity to socialize.C. They gave Africans an unwritten method of maintaining their history.D. Storytellers often acquired great wealth by telling stories and fables. Section 3-EndVS 1EARLY AFRICAN SOCIETIES For centuries, until A.D. 150, Kush’s advanced civilization in the upper Nile thrived on trading ivory and ebony with Egypt, India, and Arabia.Evolving from an Arab colony, Axum succeeded Kush as a major trading power in East Africa.Once the Muslims conquered Egypt, they began to set up Islamic states in Northern Africa, transforming the culture.VS 2AFRICAN KINGDOMS In the upper Niger River valley, the kings of Ghana ruled a trading empire based on gold.With legendary rulers Sundiata Keita and Mansa Mūsā, the kingdom of Mali replaced Ghana’s dominance in the 1200s.Bantu-speaking peoples slowly migrated east and south, spreading the use of iron tools in farming.In the 1300s and 1400s, cities on the eastern coast traded with India and Arabia, while the wealthy state of Zimbabwe prospered in the south.VS 3AFRICAN SOCIETY AND CULTUREIn Africa extended families and lineage groups were the basic units for village societies.Communication with a creator god through rituals and ancestors typified many African religions.Arab merchants brought Islam to East and Southern Africa, and it began to gain converts in the 1300s.Religion drove artistic expression, exemplified in West African sculptures, while griots or storytellers preserved literature and history.VS-EndFigure 1Figure 2Figure 2aFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Chapter Trans MenuChapter Transparencies MenuChapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.Chapter TransUnit Timeline TransCnETransDFS Trans 1DFS Trans 2DFS Trans 3Vocab1plateaua relatively high, flat land area Vocab2savannabroad grassland dotted with small trees and shrubs Vocab3so-calledcommonly named; popularly termed Vocab4resourcesavailable means for economic or political development Vocab5subsistence farmingthe practice of growing just enough crops for personal use, not for sale Vocab6Swahilia mixed African-Arabic culture that developed along the east coast of Africa; also, the major language used in that area, combining Bantu with Arabic words and phrases Vocab7stateless societya group of independent villages Vocab8factora contributing part Vocab9administrativerelating to the execution of public affairs, as distinguished from policymaking Vocab10securityfreedom from danger or invasion; safety Vocab11lineage groupan extended family unit that has combined into a larger community Vocab12matrilinealtracing lineage through the mother rather than the father Vocab13patrilinealtracing lineage through the father Vocab14divinera person who is believed to have the power to foretell events Vocab15griotone of a special class of African storytellers who help keep alive a people’s history Vocab16foundingoriginating; beginning Vocab17culturea people’s way of lifeHelpClick the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. 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