Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianily, 600 B.C-A.D. 500

Tài liệu Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 5 Rome and the Rise of Christianily, 600 B.C-A.D. 500: Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: The Rise of RomeSection 2: From Republic to EmpireSection 3: Roman Culture and SocietySection 4: The Development of ChristianitySection 5: Decline and FallVisual SummaryChapter Intro What did we learn about city planning from the Romans?The Romans built cities from England to Africa and connected them with roads. Using concrete, the dome, and the arch, they constructed amphitheaters, temples, law courts, and aqueducts. This aqueduct brought water 31 miles (50 km) to the city of Nîmes. The upper level was the waterway, the lower a road. In this chapter you will learn how the Romans influenced the development of cities.• Why was it important to build aqueducts?• How does your city supply water to its residents?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1The Rise of RomeWhat supported Rome in conquering the Mediterranean?Chapter Intro 2From Republic to EmpireWhat factors contributed to the destabilization of the Roman Republic?Cha...

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Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: The Rise of RomeSection 2: From Republic to EmpireSection 3: Roman Culture and SocietySection 4: The Development of ChristianitySection 5: Decline and FallVisual SummaryChapter Intro What did we learn about city planning from the Romans?The Romans built cities from England to Africa and connected them with roads. Using concrete, the dome, and the arch, they constructed amphitheaters, temples, law courts, and aqueducts. This aqueduct brought water 31 miles (50 km) to the city of Nîmes. The upper level was the waterway, the lower a road. In this chapter you will learn how the Romans influenced the development of cities.• Why was it important to build aqueducts?• How does your city supply water to its residents?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1The Rise of RomeWhat supported Rome in conquering the Mediterranean?Chapter Intro 2From Republic to EmpireWhat factors contributed to the destabilization of the Roman Republic?Chapter Intro 3Roman Culture and SocietyHow wide-spread was the influence of Greek and Roman culture?Chapter Intro 4The Development of ChristianityHow did Christianity change the Roman Empire?Chapter Intro 5Decline and FallWhat led to the eventual end of the Roman Empire?Chapter Preview-EndSection 1-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaOrder and Security The Romans conquered and controlled the Italian peninsula and then the entire Mediterranean world. Section 1-Key TermsContent Vocabularyrepublicpatricianplebeianconsul praetorAcademic Vocabularyvirtuallyinstitutions inadequate Section 1-Key TermsPeople and PlacesRomeLatinsSicilyEtruscansLivyRoman SenateCarthageHannibalAlps ABSection 1-Polling QuestionDid geography play a significant role in the settlement of your community?A. YesB. NoSection 1The Land and Peoples of ItalyRome’s central location and geographic features made it a desirable location from which to expand.Section 1The location of Rome was ideal for settlement, and provided a central position in Italy from which to expand.An Indo-European people known as the Latins were living in the hills of Rome from about 1500 to 1000 B.C. They were herders and farmers and spoke Latin.The Land and Peoples of Italy (cont.)Italy 500 B.C.Section 1The Greeks and the Etruscans heavily influenced the development of Rome.Greeks came to Italy in large numbers during the age of Greek colonization. The Greeks occupied Sicily and influenced Rome’s cultural and artistic systems. The Land and Peoples of Italy (cont.)Section 1It was the Etruscans who influenced the Rome the most. By 650 B.C., they controlled the city and most of Latium.The Land and Peoples of Italy (cont.)ABCDSection 1Which people had a heavy influence on the development of Rome?A. CarthaginiansB. EgyptiansC. PersiansD. EtruscansSection 1The Roman RepublicThe Romans were practical and skillful in politics and military matters.Section 1A new era in Roman history occurred in 509 B.C. when the last Etruscan king was overthrown and a republic was established.By 264 B.C., Rome had conquered virtually all of Italy. The Roman historian Livy provided stories that glorified the virtues of past Romans.The Roman Republic (cont.)Section 1Rome was a successful empire because:Romans were good diplomats. They were smart about extending citizenship rights, and gave conquered states the autonomy to run their own affairs.Romans were excellent at military operations. They were brilliant strategists and built roads throughout the empire to move armies and supplies.The Roman Republic (cont.)Section 1Rome was a successful empire because:Romans created practical legal and political institutions.The Roman Republic (cont.)Section 1Patricians and plebeians made up Roman society. Men in both groups were citizens and could vote, however only patricians could be elected to public office.Two consuls, chosen every year, ran the government and led the army into war. A praetor was in charge of civil law. The Roman Republic (cont.)Section 1The Roman Senate was made up of 300 patricians who were elected for life. The Roman Senate selected the consuls and praetors and passed laws.Patricians and plebeians struggled over social and political equality. By 287 B.C., a law making all Roman males equal citizens was passed.The Roman Republic (cont.)Section 1Rome’s first attempt at a legal system was the Twelve Tables, adopted in 450 B.C. This code of laws proved to be inadequate for the needs of the Roman society.Romans then established standards of justice that applied to all Roman citizens. The principles of this legal system provide the basis of our current legal system.The Roman Republic (cont.)Twelve Tables of Rome 449 B.C.ABCDSection 1Which of the following principles of justice is still recognized today?A. The wealthy are tried in a different court.B. Judges can only serve for five years.C. Defendants are innocent until proven guilty. D. Adults and children must be tried in the same court.Section 1Roman ExpansionAfter their conquest of Italy, the Romans faced the state of Carthage.Section 1In 264 B.C., the First Punic War began between Rome and Carthage, a Phoenician colony in North Africa that had grown wealthy from trade. Rome was victorious and claimed the island of Sicily.Roman Expansion (cont.)Punic Wars, 264–146 B.C.Section 1In 216 B.C., the Carthaginian general Hannibal crossed the Alps with his army of 46,000 men and 37 battle elephants to attack Rome. This was the beginning of the Second Punic War. In 206 B.C., the Romans pushed the Carthaginian forces out of Spain. Roman Expansion (cont.)Punic Wars, 264–146 B.C.Section 1At the Battle of Zama in 202 B.C., Rome defeated Hannibal, and Spain became a Roman province.In 146 B.C., the Third Punic War was fought. The Romans destroyed Carthage and became the dominant power in the Mediterranean world.Roman Expansion (cont.)Punic Wars, 264–146 B.C.ABCDSection 1Which of the following was not a result of the Punic Wars fought between Rome and Carthage?A. Rome gained territory in Africa and Spain. B. The patricians and plebeians were given equal political power. C. Carthage was destroyed and became a Roman colony.D. Rome became the dominant power in the Mediterranean world.Section 1-EndSection 2-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaStruggle for Rights The internal instability of the Roman Empire eventually led to civil wars and increased power for the military.Section 2-Key TermsContent Vocabularytriumviratedictatorimperator Academic Vocabularyfinancialinstability whereas Section 2-Key TermsPeople and PlacesCrassusPompeyJulius CaesarRubicon RiverOctavianAntonyAugustusNeroPax RomanaDaciaSinai PeninsulaRhine RiverDanube RiverABSection 2-Polling QuestionDo you agree or disagree that political leaders should have a higher set of values than citizens?A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 2The End of the Roman RepublicPolitical and social unrest led to civil wars, ending the Republic.Section 2By the second century B.C., The Senate was controlled foreign and domestic policy of Rome, including financial affairs.A small group of landed aristocrats began to gain more power and soon brought instability to the Roman Republic.A change in the recruitment of soldiers also created problems. Soldiers seeking land swore allegiance to the general, not the state, thus giving military generals great power.The End of the Roman Republic (cont.)Section 2In 60 B.C., the First Triumvirate was formed to run the government. The leaders of the triumvirate were Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar.Julius Caesar had illegally crossed the Rubicon River with his army causing a civil war in which he defeated Pompey. In 45 B.C., Julius Caesar was made dictator and controlled Rome. The End of the Roman Republic (cont.)Section 2Caesar’s land reform policies were unpopular, and he was assassinated by a group of senators in 44 B.C.The Second Triumvirate was composed of Octavian, Antony, and Lepidus. Octavian and Antony soon came into conflict, and Octavian soon became the sole ruler of the Roman Empire.The End of the Roman Republic (cont.)ABCDSection 2How did Julius Caesar become the dictator of Rome?A. He defeated Pompey in a civil war.B. He was elected by the Senate.C. He was elected by the citizens of Rome.D. Rome was under attack and needed a leader.Section 2The Beginning of the Roman EmpireOctavian, titled Caesar Augustus, created a new order that began the Roman Empire.Section 2In 27 B.C., Octavian gave the Senate some power but became the first emperor of Rome. The Senate gave the Octavian the title of Augustus, meaning the revered one. The Senate also gave Augustus the title of imperator.Augustus’ new political system allowed the emperor to select his successor. The next four emperors came from his family and became more powerful and corrupt.The Beginning of the Roman Empire (cont.)Section 2Nero was a ruthless ruler. His death in 69 B.C. caused a civil war to break out.Following the civil war, emperors were more tolerant and the time period known as the Pax Romana began. The building of roads and public works was undertaken to help the empire.The Beginning of the Roman Empire (cont.)Section 2The Roman empire expanded to include Dacia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai Peninsula. Trajan, one of the good emperors, strengthened his defenses along the Rhine and Danube Rivers in Europe.The empire at its height was one of the greatest the world has ever known. The Beginning of the Roman Empire (cont.)Roman Empire: Trade and ExpansionSection 2Latin was the language of the western empire, whereas Greek was spoken in the east. Roman culture spread through the empire and mixed with the existing Greek culture resulting in a Greco-Roman civilization. The Beginning of the Roman Empire (cont.)ABCDSection 2What was Pax Romana?A. A time period of Roman Emperors B. A time period of Roman peace and prosperity C. A time period of Roman civil warsD. A time period of when the Senate regained control Section 2-EndSection 3-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values The Romans spread both Greek and Roman contributions to art, architecture, and literature throughout the empire. Section 3-Key TermsContent VocabularypaterfamiliasinsulaeAcademic VocabularyprimarycontractorSection 3-Key TermsPeople and PlacesVirgilHoraceLivySpartacusABSection 3-Polling QuestionDo you agree that all great empires borrow ideas from other cultures?A. YesB. NoSection 3Roman Arts and LiteratureThe Romans spread Greco-Roman arts and culture throughout the empire.Section 3The Romans borrowed heavily from Greek styles of art and architecture. The Romans constructed roads, bridges, and aqueducts throughout the empire.The Age of Augustus is known as the golden age of Latin Literature. Roman Arts and Literature (cont.)Section 3Virgil wrote of the splendor of Rome. His masterpiece was the Aeneid. Horace wrote satires about the Roman people.Livy wrote about the history of Rome, although his accuracy is often questioned.Roman Arts and Literature (cont.)ABCDSection 3What did the Romans build to improve transportation in the empire?A. Roads and bridgesB. A ferry systemC. Wagons and cartsD. Hotels for people and horsesSection 3Life in Ancient RomeCity life in ancient Rome had problems similar to life today.Section 3Roman households were headed by the paterfamilias—the dominant male.Boys and girls were educated in Roman society. Upper-class girls were often sent to primary schools for their education.Women had considerable freedom and independence. Although they could not enter politics, they could own and sell property, attend theatre and races, and socialize. Life in Ancient Rome (cont.)Section 3Slavery was common in the ancient world, and the Romans depended heavily on slave labor for household duties and the building of public works.Spartacus was a gladiator who led a slave revolt in 73 B.C.Rome was the cultural center of the Roman Empire. The large public buildings and magnificent architecture of the city was unequaled anywhere else in the empire.Life in Ancient Rome (cont.)Section 3A gap existed between the rich and the poor. The wealthy lived in comfortable villas, while the poor lived in apartment complexes called insulae. The emperor provided the entertainment for the city, which included horse and chariot races, theater performances, and gladiator fights.Life in Ancient Rome (cont.)ABCDSection 3What was a constant threat to the people in the insulae?A. Gladiators B. ThievesC. FireD. Conscription into the Roman armySection 3-EndSection 4-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire and eventually became the state religion of Rome.Section 4-Key TermsContent VocabularyprocuratorNew Testament clergylaityAcademic Vocabularyguaranteetransformationstructure Section 4-Key TermsPeople and PlacesJudaeaJerusalemJesusSimon PeterPaulAegean SeaTheodosius the GreatConstantineABSection 4-Polling QuestionShould countries should be tolerant of differing religious views?A. YesB. NoSection 4Religion in the Roman EmpirePrior to Christianity, Roman religion involved the worship of a number of gods and goddesses and the belief that Rome had earned the favor of the gods.Section 4Although tolerant of other religions, the official religion of the Romans involved the worship of numerous gods and goddesses.Rituals guaranteed peace and prosperity.Religion in the Roman Empire (cont.)Section 4Rome controlled the Jewish state of Judaea under the direction of an official called a procurator. A Jewish revolt was ended in A.D.70, and the Jewish temple in Jerusalem was destroyed.Religion in the Roman Empire (cont.)ABCDSection 4Which members of Jewish society advocated revolution against Roman rule in Judaea?A. Sadducees B. PhariseesC. EssenesD. ZealotsSection 4The Rise of ChristianityAlthough Christians were initially persecuted, Christianity grew in importance and spread throughout the Roman Empire.Section 4Jesus was a Jewish teacher who traveled and taught in Judaea and Galilee. Despite his adherence to the Law, Jesus’ primary emphasis was on the transformation of the inner person.After Jesus’ death, apostles such as Simon Peter and Paul spread the message of Jesus to Jews and Gentiles. The Rise of Christianity (cont.)Section 4Paul founded Christian communities all along the shores of the Aegean Sea.The teachings of Jesus were passed on orally and, eventually, written down by his followers. These writings would become the core of the New Testament. The Rise of Christianity (cont.)Section 4Even though the Romans tolerated other religions, Christianity was seen as dangerous to the state, since Christians refused to worship the state gods.Roman persecution of Christians strengthened Christianity. The structure of Christianity became more organized. Clergy had distinct functions separate from the laity. The Rise of Christianity (cont.)Spread of Christianity, A.D. 325–600Section 4Why was Christianity able to attract so many followers?It was a personal religion and offered salvation to all. Doing so gave life meaning to many. It was similar to existing religions. Christianity fulfilled the human need to belong. The Rise of Christianity (cont.)Section 4Christianity proved attractive all classes, especially the poor and powerless. The Rise of Christianity (cont.)Section 4In the fourth century A.D., the Roman emperor Constantine became the first Christian emperor.Theodosius the Great adopted Christianity as the official religion of the Roman Empire.The Rise of Christianity (cont.)Constantine’s Contributions to the Spread of ChristianityABCDSection 4Who became the first Christian emperor?A. Nero B. TheodosiusC. Constantine D. Simon PeterSection 4-EndSection 5-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaOrder and Security Although two strong emperors temporarily revived the Roman Empire, Germanic tribes from central Europe helped bring it to an end.Section 5-Key TermsContent Vocabularyplagueinflation Academic Vocabularymilitaryeconomiccollapse Section 5-Key TermsPeople and PlacesDiocletianConstantineByzantiumBosporusHunsVisigothsDanube RiverVandalsRomulus AugustulusABSection 5-Polling QuestionDo you think large cities are too big to govern effectively?A. YesB. NoSection 5The DeclinePolitical upheavals, the plague, and the division of the empire led to its decline.Section 5Roman rulers relied on military strength to control the large empire. From A.D. 235 to 284, the Roman throne was controlled by the person with the most military power.In the third century A.D., invasions, civil wars, and plague nearly caused an economic collapse of the empire.The Decline (cont.)Section 5Two emperors—Diocletian and Constantine— attempted to save the empire by changing the government structure, economic and social systems, and by implementing Christianity as the new state religion. Diocletian ruled from 284 to 305 and split the empire into four regions.The Decline (cont.)Section 5Constantine ruled from 306 to 337 and created a new capital city in the east. The capital city was called Constantinople, and was built on the site of the former Greek city of Byzantium on the shores of the Bosporus. Spending large amounts of money to save the empire hurt the Roman economy and inflation appeared.The Decline (cont.)The Roman Empire Under the TetrarchsABCDSection 5Which of the following was not a reason for the decline of the Roman Empire?A. Labor shortages due to plague B. Slave revolts C. Invasions from Persians D. Civil wars over the throneSection 5The FallThe migration of Germanic tribes helped bring an end to the Roman Empire.Section 5To survive hard times, the Roman Empire was divided into the Western Roman Empire and the Eastern Roman Empire.The Huns moved into Eastern Europe and pushed the Germanic Visigoths west across the Danube River. The Visigoths were initially Roman allies but revolted. They sacked the Roman capital in A.D. 410.The Fall (cont.)Migrations into the Roman Empire, A.D. 200–500Section 5The Vandals poured into Spain and North Africa. They captured Rome in A.D. 455.In A.D. 476, the western emperor Romulus Augustulus was deposed by the Germanic army. A.D. 476 is considered the end of the Roman Empire.The Fall (cont.)Invasions into the Roman Empire, A.D. 200–500Section 5There are many theories to propose the fall of the Roman Empire. The rise of Christianity weakened Roman military virtues. Italian values decreased as the non-Italian population increased. Lead poisoning through lead cups and pipes caused a decline in the population. The Fall (cont.)Section 5Plague weakened the Roman population.Slavery led to a decline to technology. Rome could not create a workable political system. The Fall (cont.)ABCDSection 5Which groups invaded Roman Italy?A. Huns and Visigoths B. Ostrogoths and FranksC. Visigoths and Vandals D. Persians and GreeksSection 5-EndVS 1ROMAN REPUBLIC The Romans learned from then overthrew the Etruscans and established a republic.The Romans controlled the Italian peninsula but allowed some non-Romans to be citizens of Rome.After defeating Carthage, Rome became master of the Mediterranean.VS 2ROMAN EMPIREThe Republic died as generals competed to rule Rome.The “Good Emperors” brought prosperity through trade and expansion.Public works, a shared culture, and architecture unified Rome’s far-flung cities.A new religion—Christianity—spread through the empire, becoming the official religion.VS 3DECLINE AND FALL of the Western EmpireOutside threats, civil strife, and economic woes weakened Rome’s ability to hold the empire together.Diocletian and Constantine could not revive the divided empire’s economy.The migration of Germanic tribes helped bring about an end to the Roman Empire.The Eastern Empire survived as the Byzantine Empire.VS-EndFigure 1Figure 1aFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 4aFigure 5Figure 6Chapter Trans MenuChapter Transparencies MenuChapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.Chapter TransUnit Timeline TransCnETransDFS Trans 1DFS Trans 2DFS Trans 3DFS Trans 4DFS Trans 5Vocab1republica form of government in which the leader is not a king and certain citizens have the right to vote Vocab2patricianwealthy, powerful landowners; they formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic Vocab3plebeianin the Roman Republic, a social class made up of minor landholders, craftspeople, merchants, and small farmers Vocab4consula chief executive officer of the Roman Republic; two were elected each year, one to run the government and one to lead the army into battle Vocab5praetoran official of the Roman Republic in charge of enforcing civil law Vocab6virtuallyalmost entirely; nearly Vocab7institutionan organization for the promotion of a cause Vocab8inadequatenot sufficient Vocab9triumviratea government by three people with equal power Vocab10dictatoran absolute ruler Vocab11imperatorcommander in chief; the Latin origin of the word emperor Vocab12financialrelating to the management of funds Vocab13instabilitynot steady; wavering Vocab14whereasalthough Vocab15paterfamiliasin the Roman social structure, the dominant male head of the household, which also included his wife, sons and their wives and children, unmarried daughters, and slaves Vocab16insulaeRoman apartment blocks constructed of concrete with wooden beam floors Vocab17primarymost important Vocab18contractorone who contracts or is a party to a contract to perform work, provide supplies, or erect buildings Vocab19procuratorin the Roman Empire, an official in charge of a provinceVocab20New Testamentthe second part of the Christian Bible, it provides a record of Jesus’ life and teachings Vocab21clergychurch leaders Vocab22laityregular church members Vocab23guaranteedassured the fulfillment of a condition Vocab24transformationconversion; change in character or condition Vocab25structurean arrangement in a definite pattern of organization Vocab26plaguean epidemic disease Vocab27inflationa rapid increase in prices Vocab28militaryrelating to the armed forces or to soldiers, arms, or war Vocab29economicrelating to the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services Vocab30collapseto break down completely; to suddenly lose force or effectiveness HelpClick the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. 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