Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 4 Ancient Greece, 1900-133 B.C

Tài liệu Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 4 Ancient Greece, 1900-133 B.C: Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Early Civilizations in GreeceSection 2: The Greek City-StatesSection 3: Classical GreeceSection 4: The Culture of Classical GreeceSection 5: Alexander and the Hellenistic EraVisual SummaryChapter Intro How did the Greeks shape our culture?When you go to a theater, laugh at a comedy, or cry at a tragedy, you are using words and ideas from ancient Greece. Theaters, like the one in Taormina, Italy, shown here, were carved out of hillsides and had such good acoustics that audiences of up to 14,000 could hear the actors and chorus. In this chapter you will learn how the Greeks continue to influence our culture today.• What impact did the Mediterranean climate have on Greek buildings?• How do our stadiums and theaters resemble Greek theaters?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Early Civilizations in GreeceIn what ways did proximity to the sea influence the development of early Greek civilizations?Chapter Intro 2The Greek City-...

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Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Early Civilizations in GreeceSection 2: The Greek City-StatesSection 3: Classical GreeceSection 4: The Culture of Classical GreeceSection 5: Alexander and the Hellenistic EraVisual SummaryChapter Intro How did the Greeks shape our culture?When you go to a theater, laugh at a comedy, or cry at a tragedy, you are using words and ideas from ancient Greece. Theaters, like the one in Taormina, Italy, shown here, were carved out of hillsides and had such good acoustics that audiences of up to 14,000 could hear the actors and chorus. In this chapter you will learn how the Greeks continue to influence our culture today.• What impact did the Mediterranean climate have on Greek buildings?• How do our stadiums and theaters resemble Greek theaters?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Early Civilizations in GreeceIn what ways did proximity to the sea influence the development of early Greek civilizations?Chapter Intro 2The Greek City-StatesWhy do some political ideas live on, while others are discarded?Chapter Intro 3Classical GreeceWhat leads to rivalry between nations?Chapter Intro 4The Culture of Classical GreeceHow has classical Greece influenced Western civilization?Chapter Intro 5Alexander and the Hellenistic EraWhat makes a great leader?Chapter Preview-EndSection 1-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaPhysical Geography The earliest Greek civilizations that appeared in the second millennium B.C. were influenced by their physical environment. Section 1-Key TermsContent Vocabularyepic poemarete Academic Vocabularyparticipatedebated Section 1-Key TermsPeople, Places, and EventsAegean SeaBlack SeaBronze AgeCreteMinoanMycenaeanHomerIoniaABSection 1-Polling QuestionDo you agree or disagree that today’s societies are not dependent on geography?A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 1The Impact of GeographyThe mountains that divided Greece led to cultural and political divisions between Greeks. However, the seas linked Greece to the rest of the world.Section 1The mountains and the sea played especially significant roles in the development of Greek history.About 80 percent of Greece is mountainous. These mountains caused Greek communities to develop uniquely and independently from each other. The Impact of Geography (cont.)The Impact of GeographySection 1It is likely that the small size of independent communities encouraged more of the population to participate in politics. Greece is made up of a peninsula and numerous islands surrounded by the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Ionian Seas.Access to the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Black Seas enabled the Greeks to make contact with the outside world. The Impact of Geography (cont.)ABCDSection 1Why is it assumed that many of the Greek people participated in politics?A. They lived in small, independent communities.B. They were well educated. C. They lived by the seas. D. They had contact with outside communities.Section 1Minoans and MycenaeansThe Mycenaeans created the first Greek civilization.Section 1By 2800 B.C., the Minoan civilization existed on the island of Crete. This Bronze Age society influenced Greek civilization.The first Greek state was developed by the Mycenaean Greeks, an Indo-European people who lived on the mainland of Greece. Minoans and Mycenaeans (cont.)Section 1The Mycenaean Greeks were a warrior people who built fortresses and maintained loose alliances.According to Homer, the Mycenaean Greeks conquered Troy around 1250 B.C. Scholars have debated whether this event was factual or a legend. Minoans and Mycenaeans (cont.)ABCDSection 1What event is told in poetic form by Homer?A. Mycenaean Greeks capturing Minoa B. Mycenaean Greeks conquering Troy C. Mycenaean Greeks capturing CreteD. Mycenaean Greeks suffering a devastating earthquakeSection 1Greeks in the Dark AgeGreek civilization was slow to recover from the several centuries of instability that followed the fall of the Mycenaeans.Section 1Following the collapse of the Mycenaean empire, Greece entered the Dark Age. Many Greeks left Greece for Ionia.Homer’s epic poems, the Iliad and the Odyssey appear near the end of the Dark Age. The values taught by Homer were courage and honor as shown by the arete of Greek heroes.Greeks in the Dark Age (cont.)ABCDSection 1Why is Homer thought to have “created” Greek history?A. He wrote down everything he saw. B. He created a library to contain Greek works.C. He taught Greeks how to read and write.D. His literary works gave Greeks an ideal past and national heroes.Section 1-EndSection 2-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values Differences between Athenian and Spartan values led to different forms of government. Section 2-Key TermsContent VocabularypolisacropolisagorahoplitephalanxtyrantdemocracyoligarchyhelotephorSection 2-Key TermsAcademic VocabularyassembleimpliesPeople and PlacesHellespontBosporusByzantiumSpartaAthensSolonCleisthenesABSection 2-Polling QuestionDo you think most communities had a centralized area where people met for political and social activities?A. YesB. NoSection 2Polis: The Center of Greek LifeThe polis or city-state was the central focus of Greek life. The citizens of a polis had defined rights and responsibilities, as well as a strong identity and loyalty that kept the city-states divided.Section 2By 750 B.C., the polis had become the central focus of Greek life, where people would meet for political, social, and religious activities. The main gathering area was usually the acropolis, a fortified area at the top of a hill. People would assemble in the agora, which was an open area below the acropolis. Polis: The Center of Greek Life (cont.)Section 2Citizens of the Greek polis had rights and responsibilities. The military system of the ancient Greeks was based on soldiers called hoplites who fought in a military formation known as a phalanx. Polis: The Center of Greek Life (cont.)ABCDSection 2What is the term for the city-state of ancient Greece?A. Phalanx B. Polis C. AgoraD. AcropolisSection 2Greek ExpansionThe search for farmland and the growth of trade resulted in colonization and the spread of Greek culture and political ideas.Section 2Ancient Greeks sought more farmland and trade bases. They established colonies along the Mediterranean Sea and on Hellespont and Bosporus straits.The most notable of these colonies was Byzantium, the site of the present-day city of Istanbul.Greek Expansion (cont.)Section 2The Greeks grew wealthy trading pottery, wine, and olive oil in exchange for grains, metals, timber, and slaves.The expansion of trade and industry gave rise to a new group of men who used their wealth to seize power. Tyrants were rulers who seized control yet were not oppressive, as our word for tyrant implies.Greek Expansion (cont.)Greek Colonies and Trade, 750–550 B.C.Section 2The age of tyrants did not last, and as a result, many more people became involved in politics.Many of the city-states developed either democracy or oligarchy.Greek Expansion (cont.)ABCDSection 2What was the impact of Greek colonization?A. Wealth that bolstered the Greek economyB. The end of the polis systemC. The end of democracy and oligarchyD. The unification of the Greek city-statesSection 2Two Rival City-StatesSparta and Athens developed different systems of government.Section 2Beginning around 730 B.C., the city-state of Sparta became a dominant military state and conquered several of its neighbors. These conquered peoples were known as helots and became serfs who were made to work for the Spartans. All males in Sparta spent their childhood learning military discipline joined the military at age 20. Philosophy, literature, and travel were discouraged.Two Rival City-States (cont.) Section 2The Spartan government was headed by two kings, called ephors, who were elected annually and were in charge of education and the conduct of citizens.Around 700 B.C., Athens had become a unified polis on the peninsula of Attica. A small number of aristocrats owned the best land and headed the government as an oligarchy. Two Rival City-States (cont.) Section 2Solon solved the economic problems of Athens by canceling land debts and freeing those enslaved due to debt. Another reformer named Cleisthenes created a council of 500 men to oversee governmental affairs. This assembly created the foundations of Athenian democracy.Two Rival City-States (cont.) ABCDSection 2Which of the following activities would have been encouraged in Spartan society?A. Studying literary works B. Traveling to other city-statesC. Physical fitness training D. Studying philosophySection 2-EndSection 3-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaCompetition Between Countries Athens’s growing power led to conflict with Sparta. Section 3-Key TermsContent VocabularyAge of Periclesdirect democracyostracismAcademic VocabularyclassicalstrategySection 3-Key TermsPeople and PlacesAsia MinorDariusXerxesDelian LeagueDelos PericlesThebesMacedoniaABSection 3-Polling QuestionDo you think forming alliances strengthens or weakens independent societies?A. StrengthensB. WeakensSection 3The Challenge of PersiaThe Greek states of Athens and Sparta formed alliances to defeat the Persian invaders.Section 3The Persian Empire captured the Ionian Greek cities in western Asia Minor during the mid-sixth century B.C.The Persian ruler Darius wanted revenge against Athens for assisting a failed rebellion by the Ionian cities. The Challenge of Persia (cont.)Section 3In 490 B.C., the Persian army led by Darius was defeated by the Athenians.In 480 B.C., Xerxes led an other Persian invasion of Greece. Athenians, Spartans, and other Greeks united and defeated the Persian invaders in 479 B.C. The Challenge of Persia (cont.)Persian Wars, 499–479 B.C.ABCDSection 3How did the Greeks defeat the Persians?A. The use of iron weapons B. The Spartan armyC. Forming an alliance D. Using helots as soldiersSection 3The Athenian EmpireDuring the Age of Pericles, Athens became the center of Greek culture.Section 3In 478 B.C., the Athenians created a defensive alliance against the Persians known as the Delian League. Its headquarters was on the island of Delos.Pericles became a prominent leader in Athenian politics between 461 and 429 B.C. He expanded democracy to enable all male citizens to play a role in the government.The Athenian Empire (cont.)Section 3The Age of Pericles witnessed an expansion of the empire abroad and the creation of direct democracy at home.Historians consider this period of classical Athenian and Greek history as the height of Athenian power and brilliance. Art, architecture, and philosophy flourished. The Athenian Empire (cont.)Comparing Democratic SystemsSection 3Under the practice of ostracism, any person who had their name written by at least 6,000 members of the assembly would be banned from the city for 10 years.The Athenian economy was based largely on farming and trade. Due to the shortage of farmland, importing grain and other crops was important to the society.The Athenian Empire (cont.)Section 3The primary function of the family was to produce new citizens by having children. Slaves and other dependent relatives were often considered family as well.The Athenian Empire (cont.)ABCDSection 3What was the main function of the family in classical Greece?A. Involvement in politics B. Military serviceC. Producing children D. Trading for grains and other needed goods Section 3The Great Peloponnesian War The creation of an Athenian empire led to tensions with Sparta and, eventually, war.Section 3The growing rivalry between Sparta and Athens led to the outbreak of war. In 431 B.C., the Great Peloponnesian War began.The two rivals had differing strategies on how to win the war. The Great Peloponnesian War (cont.)Peloponnesian War, 431–404 B.C.Section 3The Spartan army surrounded Athens. Athens relied on its navy and defensive walls for protection.After 25 years of war, Sparta was victorious. While Sparta, Athens, and Thebes struggled to dominate Greek affairs, the empire of Macedonia to the north grew stronger. The Great Peloponnesian War (cont.)ABCDSection 3How did the Great Peloponnesian War weaken the Greek city-states?A. The war killed most of the adult males. B. They were not able to cooperate with each other.C. Most of the ships were destroyed.D. Trade was interrupted and food was scarce.Section 3-EndSection 4-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values Ideas from the classical age of Greece helped to shape Western civilization. Section 4-Key TermsContent Vocabularyritualoracletragedy philosophy Socratic methodAcademic Vocabularyethicsmethod Section 4-Key TermsPeople and PlacesOlympusDelphiAeschylusSophoclesEuripidesHerodotus Thucydides PythagorasSophistsSocratesPlatoAristotleABSection 4-Polling QuestionDo you think separation of government and religion is important in order for societies to develop?A. YesB. NoSection 4Greek ReligionGreek religion was fundamental to Greek society and is remembered today for the Olympic Games and Greek drama, which were part of religious festivals.Section 4Greek religion was centered around gods and goddesses who controlled the lives of the Greeks.The gods and goddesses were thought to live on Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece.Greek Religion (cont.)Olympian GodsSection 4To keep the gods happy, the ancient Greeks relied on rituals. These rituals could include festivals and athletic events.To learn the will of the gods, the ancient Greeks used the oracle. The most famous oracle was the oracle of Apollo at Delphi, where representatives of states were sent for consultation.Greek Religion (cont.)ABCDSection 4How did the Greeks honor their gods and goddesses?A. Oracles B. Military conquestC. Rituals and festivals D. Traveling to OlympusSection 4Classical Greek Arts and LiteratureGreece produced groundbreaking art and literature that is still considered relevant.Section 4Greek architecture was centered around principles of calmness, clarity, and freedom from unnecessary detail.The most important form of architecture was the temple, dedicated to a god or goddess. The use of marble columns was common after the fifth century B.C.Classical Greek Arts and Literature (cont.)Section 4Greek sculptors sought a standard of ideal beauty, and the nude male was the favorite subject. The first Greek dramas were tragedies, and were presented in a trilogy.Today, the only complete tragedy we possess is called Oresteia written by Aeschylus.Classical Greek Arts and Literature (cont.)Section 4Sophocles was a playwright from Athens who was noted for his work Oedipus Rex. Euripides questioned traditional values and developed complex plots and characters. Greek comedies, developed later, used puns and satire to criticize politicians and intellectuals. Classical Greek Arts and Literature (cont.)Section 4Herodotus wrote History of the Persian Wars, which is often seen as the first real history in Western civilization.Thucydides is often considered the greatest historian of the ancient world; he attempted to portray history fairly and accurately. Classical Greek Arts and Literature (cont.)ABCDSection 4Who wrote the only complete Greek tragedy that we possess today?A. Sophocles B. HerodotusC. ThucydidesD. AeschylusSection 4Greek PhilosophyThree great Greek philosophers—Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle—established the foundations of Western philosophy.Section 4Philosophy refers to an organized system of thought. Many philosophers in ancient Greece sought answers to question of the nature of the universe through rational thought.Pythagoras taught that the essence of the universe could be found in music and numbers.Greek Philosophy (cont.)Section 4A group of traveling teachers, known as Sophists, did not believe that it was possible to understand the universe and rejected the ideas of other philosophers. They believed it was more important for individuals to improve themselves.Three Greek philosophers—Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle—established the foundations of Western philosophy.Greek Philosophy (cont.)Section 4SocratesSculptor whose true love was philosophy Believed the goal of education was to improve the individual Taught students to live their lives by a code of ethicsGreek Philosophy (cont.)Section 4He used a method of teaching in a question-and-answer format to lead students to find answers for themselves. This Socratic Method is still used today. Greek Philosophy (cont.)Section 4PlatoStudent of Socrates who was fascinated with the question of reality Wrote his ideas of government in a work entitled The Republic Considered by many to be the greatest philosopher of Western civilization Greek Philosophy (cont.)Section 4AristotleStudent of Plato who believed that people’s happiness is tied to their behavior Interested in classifying and analyzing things based on observation and investigation Studied natural science by making and recording observations, laying the foundations of the scientific method Greek Philosophy (cont.)Section 4AristotleHe did not seek an ideal state, but rather studied existing governments and favored constitutional government. Greek Philosophy (cont.)Often viewed as the most influential thinker in the Western world, his ideas are still studied today.ABCDSection 4Who were the basic groups of people in Plato’s ideal state?A. Philosophers, aristocrats, and slaves B. Philosopher-kings, warriors, and producers C. Teachers, students, and the uneducatedD. Government officials, warriors, and slavesSection 4-EndSection 5-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values Greek culture spread to new lands. Section 5-Key TermsContent VocabularyHellenistic EraEpicureanism Stoicism Academic VocabularysubsidizingfounderSection 5-Key TermsPeople and PlacesMacedoniaPhilip IIAlexander the GreatAlexandriaPergamumEratosthenesEuclidArchimedesABSection 5-Polling QuestionDo you agree that America has military heroes that all citizens know about?A. YesB. NoSection 5Macedonians Invade GreeceUnder Alexander the Great, Macedonians and Greeks conquered the Persian Empire.Section 5Macedonia was a rural region north of Greece. In 338 B.C., Phillip II invaded Greece and defeated an alliance of Greek states at the Battle of Chaeronea.Alexander the Great continued the plan of his deceased father Phillip II and conquered Persia after he took the throne at age 20.Macedonians Invade Greece (cont.)Section 5Alexander and his army captured western Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt. He built Alexandria as the Greek capital in Egypt. In 331 B.C., Alexander captured the rest of the Persian Empire. His army traveled east through what is now Pakistan and reached India.Macedonians Invade Greece (cont.)The Empire of Alexander the Great, 323 B.C.Section 5Alexander created an enormous legacy. He extended Macedonian control over vast areas, bringing wealth and new ideas to Greece, while Greek culture spread throughout North Africa and Southwest Asia. Macedonians Invade Greece (cont.)The Empire of Alexander the Great, 323 B.C.ABCDSection 5Which of the following areas were not conquered by Alexander the Great?A. Egypt B. PalestineC. ItalyD. SyriaSection 5The Hellenistic EraAs a result of Alexander’s conquests, Hellenistic cities became centers for the spread of Greek language, art, architecture, and literature.Section 5Alexander the Great ushered in a new age, the Hellenistic Era, which saw the spread of Greek culture and ideas to Southwest Asia and beyond. Alexander’s unified kingdom did not last, and four Hellenistic kingdoms arose: Macedonia, Syria, Egypt, and Pergamum in western Asia Minor.The Hellenistic Era (cont.)Section 5The cities of the Hellenistic Age were built in the Greek image and became centers of culture.Literature was highly prized, and Hellenistic leaders spent large amounts subsidizing writers.The Hellenistic Era (cont.)Section 5Hellenistic scientists and mathematicians:The Hellenistic Era (cont.)Aristarchus developed a theory that Earth revolves around sun. Eratosthenes determined that Earth was round and calculated Earth’s circumference to within 185 miles.Euclid wrote Elements, a textbook on geometry that is still studied today.Section 5Hellenistic scientists and mathematicians:The Hellenistic Era (cont.)Archimedes established the mathematical value of pi and created many inventions. Section 5Two new systems of thought, Epicureanism and Stoicism, were studied in Athens. Epicurus, the founder of Epicureanism, taught that people had to free themselves from public activity in order to follow their own self-interests to find happiness.Followers of Stoicism believed that by living in harmony with the will of God that they could bear whatever life offered.The Hellenistic Era (cont.)ABCDSection 5Which of the following was not a Hellenistic kingdom that succeeded Alexander?A. Macedonia B. Constantinople C. SyriaD. PergamumSection 5-EndVS 1EARLY GREECE AND THE POLIS Greek civilization emerged with the Mycenaeans, who reflected aristocratic and warrior values; later these were celebrated in Homer’s epics.A difficult Dark Age dispersed Greeks in colonies around the Mediterranean.The polis, or city-state, became the central unit of Greek political and social life.Sparta and Athens, the leading city-states, followed very different ideals; in Athens democracy emerged.VS 2CLASSICAL GREECE To defend their lands, the Greeks fought and defeated the Persians.Under Pericles, Athens embraced democracy at home but not in the empire.Sparta destroyed Athenian domination, ending the classical age.Greek drama probed eternal questions, while Greek philosophy pioneered rational thought.Greeks wrote the first analytical history, while balance and harmony guided their art and architecture.VS 3THE HELLENISTIC AGEAlexander the Great unified Greece, then spread its culture as he conquered other lands.Hellenistic kingdoms in Egypt, Persia, and elsewhere absorbed Greek language and culture.VS-EndFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Chapter Trans MenuChapter Transparencies MenuChapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.Chapter TransUnit Timeline TransCnETransDFS Trans 1DFS Trans 2DFS Trans 3DFS Trans 4DFS Trans 5Vocab1epic poema long poem, such as the Iliad and the Odyssey of Homer, that tells the deeds of a great heroVocab2aretein early Greece, the qualities of excellence that a hero strives to achieve in a struggle or contest Vocab3participateto take part Vocab4debateddiscussed by considering opposing viewpoints Vocab5polisthe early Greek city-state, consisting of a city or town and its surrounding countryside Vocab6acropolisin early Greek city-states, a fortified gathering place at the top of a hill that was sometimes the site of temples and public buildings Vocab7agorain early Greek city-states, an open area that served as a gathering place and as a market Vocab8hoplitein the early Greek military system, a heavily armed foot soldier Vocab9phalanxa wall of shields created by foot soldiers marching shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formationVocab10tyranta ruler who seized power by force from the aristocrats, gained support from the newly rich and the poor, and maintained power by using hired soldiersVocab11democracy“the rule of the many,” government by the people, either directly or through their elected representatives Vocab12oligarchy“the rule of the few,” a form of government in which a select group of people exercises control Vocab13helotin ancient Sparta, a captive person who was forced to work for the conqueror Vocab14ephorone of the five men elected each year in ancient Sparta who were responsible for the education of youth and the conduct of all citizens Vocab15assembleto gather; to meet together Vocab16impliesexpresses indirectly through reference or association Vocab17Age of Periclesthe period between 461 B.C. and 429 B.C. when Pericles dominated Athenian politics and Athens reached the height of its power Vocab18direct democracya system of government in which the people participate directly in government decision making through mass meetings Vocab19ostracismin ancient Athens, the process for temporarily banning ambitious politicians from the city by popular vote Vocab20classicalauthoritative, traditional; relating to the literature, art, architecture, or ideals of the ancient Greek and Roman worldVocab21strategya plan or method Vocab22rituala ceremony or a rite Vocab23oraclein ancient Greece, a sacred shrine where a god or goddess was said to reveal the future through a priest or priestess Vocab24tragedya form of drama that portrays a conflict between the protagonist and a superior force and has a protagonist who is brought to ruin or extreme sorrow, especially as a result of a fatal flaw Vocab25philosophyan organized system of thought, from the Greek for “love of wisdom” Vocab26Socratic methodthe method of teaching used by the Greek philosopher Socrates that employs a question-and-answer format to lead pupils to see things for themselves by using their own reason Vocab27ethicsmoral principles; generally recognized rules of conduct Vocab28methoda systematic plan for doing something Vocab29Hellenistic Erathe age of Alexander the Great; period when the Greek language and ideas were carried to the non-Greek world Vocab30Epicureanismschool of thought developed by the philosopher Epicurus in Hellenistic Athens; it held that happiness is the chief goal in life, and the means to achieve happiness was the pursuit of pleasure Vocab31Stoicisma school of thought developed by the teacher Zeno in Hellenistic Athens; it says that happiness can be achieved only when people gain inner peace by living in harmony with the will of God and that people should bear whatever life offers Vocab32subsidizingaiding or promoting with public money Vocab33founderone who founds or establishes HelpClick the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu, Chapter Introduction slides, or Visual Summary slides to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency.Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation.Click the History Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the slide show.Click the Help button to access this screen.Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Maps in Motion, Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, Concepts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens. To use this Presentation Plus! product:End of Custom ShowsThis slide is intentionally blank.

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