Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 3 India and China, 3000 B.C- A.D 500

Tài liệu Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 3 India and China, 3000 B.C- A.D 500: Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Early Civilizations in IndiaSection 2: New Empires in IndiaSection 3: Early Chinese CivilizationsSection 4: Rise and Fall of Chinese EmpiresVisual SummaryChapter Intro How can location protect historical artifacts?In 1819 a hunting party stumbled upon the hidden caves of Ajanta. From about 200 B.C. to A.D. 650, Buddhist monks excavated 32 caves and carved stairs, columns, and sculptures into the cliffs. By oil lamp, they painted the life of the Buddha as well as scenes from nature and daily life. In this chapter you will learn about ancient India and China.• How would the caves’ isolation have helped preserve them?• Why are buildings abandoned in your area? What happens to them?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Early Civilizations in IndiaWhat geographic factors do you think influenced the development of Indian civilizations?Chapter Intro 2New Empires in IndiaWhat do you think helped bring about early empires in India...

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Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Early Civilizations in IndiaSection 2: New Empires in IndiaSection 3: Early Chinese CivilizationsSection 4: Rise and Fall of Chinese EmpiresVisual SummaryChapter Intro How can location protect historical artifacts?In 1819 a hunting party stumbled upon the hidden caves of Ajanta. From about 200 B.C. to A.D. 650, Buddhist monks excavated 32 caves and carved stairs, columns, and sculptures into the cliffs. By oil lamp, they painted the life of the Buddha as well as scenes from nature and daily life. In this chapter you will learn about ancient India and China.• How would the caves’ isolation have helped preserve them?• Why are buildings abandoned in your area? What happens to them?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Early Civilizations in IndiaWhat geographic factors do you think influenced the development of Indian civilizations?Chapter Intro 2New Empires in IndiaWhat do you think helped bring about early empires in India?Chapter Intro 3Early Chinese CivilizationsWhy did Chinese civilizations develop in river valleys?Chapter Intro 4Rise and Fall of Chinese EmpiresWhy were government and social structure important to early Chinese dynasties?Chapter Preview-EndSection 1-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaPhysical Geography Major changes in India’s culture began around 1800 B.C.Section 1-Key TermsContent VocabularymonsoonSanskritcaste varnasHinduismyogareincarnation karmadharmaBuddhismnirvanaSection 1-Key TermsAcademic Vocabularyviareveal People and PlacesHimalayaIndus RiverHarappa Mohenjo DaroAryansSiddhārtha GautamaABSection 1-Polling QuestionDo you think that climate plays a significant role in the way your community has developed?A. YesB. NoSection 1The Impact of GeographyIndia’s mountains and location have played an important part in the development of the Indian subcontinent. Monsoons coming from the north and the south bring moisture to the farmers who live there.Section 1India’s mountains and location have played a key role in the development of the subcontinent. To the north are the Himalayas, the highest mountains in the world.To the west is the Indus River valley. Indian civilization began in this rich valley, but it is now a relatively dry plateau that forms the backbone of the modern state of Pakistan. The Impact of Geography (cont.)Section 1India’s climate is dominated by the monsoon, a seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia. Indian farmers are dependent upon the rainfall brought by the monsoon season.The Impact of Geography (cont.)The Impact of GeographyABCDSection 1How does the monsoon affect Indian farmers?A. It allows them to ship crops to markets in the east. B. It allows them to ship crops to markets in the west.C. It brings the rain necessary for the cultivation of crops.D. It protects farmers from foreign invaders.Section 1Indus Valley CivilizationThe cities of the Indus Valley civilization were well planned and very advanced.Section 1Between 3000 B.C. and 1500 B.C. the Indus River valley supported advanced civilizations that lived in the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro.The two cities were carefully structured and each supported populations of 35,000 to 40,000. Houses varied in size, but had the same plan of a courtyard surrounded by rooms. Indus Valley Civilization (cont.)Indus Civilization and TradeSection 1In Indus civilization, religion and political power were closely linked. The royal palace and the holy temple were combined in a citadel, or fort. Although farming was the basis of the economy, merchants in the Indus Valley traded copper, precious stones, and cotton with Mesopotamia on ships via the Persian Gulf.Indus Valley Civilization (cont.)ABCDSection 1Which of the following indicates there were well-organized governments in Harappa and Mohenjo Daro?A. The monsoon helped farmers to grow crops.B. Religion and politics were closely linked.C. Most buildings were constructed of oven-baked mud bricks.D. The cities had systems to deal with wastewater, garbage collection, and freshwater. Section 1Migration and InteractionAround 1500 B.C., India’s culture changed, and the Indus Valley cities were abandoned.Section 1Around 2000 B.C. the Aryans moved into the Indus Valley. The Aryans were a nomadic Indo-European people from central Asia who eventually gained political control throughout India.Around 1000 B.C., the Aryans started to write in Sanskrit.Early writings reveal that between 1500 B.C. and 400 B.C. India was a land of small kingdoms ruled by rajas princes that often fought with each other. Migration and Interaction (cont.)Section 1The society was patriarchal, as evidenced by the ritual of suttee, in which the wife throws herself on her deceased husband’s burning funeral pyre. The social structure of ancient India was divided into four varnas: Migration and Interaction (cont.)Brahmins: priests, teachersKshatriyas: warriors, policeChanges in India’s CivilizationSection 1Vaisyas: merchants, farmers, commonersSudras: peasants, servants Migration and Interaction (cont.)Over the centuries, a rigid social structure known as the caste system developed.The caste system determined what jobs people could have, and whom they could marry or socialize with.Changes in India’s CivilizationABCDSection 1Which of the following shows the hierarchy of the varnas of ancient Indian society?A. Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, Sudras B. Kshatriyas, Brahmins, Sudras, VaisyasC. Vaisyas, Sudras, Kshatriyas, BrahminsD. Sudras, Brahmins, Vaisyas, KshatriyasSection 1Religions of IndiaHinduism and Buddhism share some common beliefs.Section 1Two of the world’s great religions, Hinduism and Buddhism, began in India.HinduismReligions of India (cont.)Originated with the Aryan peoples who settled in India.Early Hindus believed in a single force, or universal spirit, called Brahman.Hindus achieve oneness with God through the practice of yoga.Section 1The three physical forms of Hinduism are Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Shiva the Destroyer.By the sixth century, the idea of reincarnation had appeared in Hinduism.Important in the process of reincarnation is the idea of karma. Karma is ruled by dharma, or divine law ,which requires all people to do their duty.Religions of India (cont.)Section 1BuddhismOriginated in the sixth century B.C. in northern India.Founded by Siddhārtha Gautama, who was known as the Buddha, or the “Enlightened One.”Buddhists believe that by letting go of physical possessions, wisdom can be gained.Religions of India (cont.)Section 1Achieving wisdom is the key step to achieving nirvana.Siddhārtha Gautama was a young prince who grew increasingly unhappy with his life of luxury.After many attempts, he reached enlightenment during meditation.Religions of India (cont.)Section 1He forbade his followers to worship his image or other gods; for this reason, Buddhism is sometimes seen as a philosophy, and not a religion. Religions of India (cont.)ABCDSection 1Which statement is most accurate about Buddhism?A. It was started by the Aryans before they reached the Indus Valley. B. It does not praise a god or a prophet.C. It called for war against Hinduism.D. It is open only to people in the highest castes.Section 1-EndSection 2-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values New Indian empires grew rich through trade and left a lasting legacy of accomplishments.Section 2-Key TermsContent VocabularySilk Roadpilgrims VedasBhagavad GitaAcademic VocabularyconversionwelfareSection 2-Key TermsPeopleAśokaFaxian KālidāsaĀryabhataABSection 2-Polling QuestionDo you agree or disagree that a ruler who is feared is more effective than a ruler who is loved?A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 2Three New EmpiresWarring kingdoms united to force out invaders, which led to three Indian empires.Section 2The Mauryan Empire was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C. This Indian Empire was a highly centralized state, and governors ruled its many provinces.Aśoka, the grandson of Chandragupta Maurya, is generally considered the greatest ruler in the history of India. After his conversion to Buddhism, he used Buddhist ideals to guide his rule.Three New Empires (cont.)Three Indian EmpiresSection 2Aśoka set up hospitals for the welfare of both people and animals. He ordered shelters and trees be placed along roads, and commerce increased in the empire. The Kushān Empire rose to power when nomadic warriors seized power in the first century A.D.Three New Empires (cont.)Section 2The Kushāns grew wealthy from trade, specifically from travel on the Silk Road which stretched from the Pacific Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea.In A.D. 320, the Gupta Empire was formed by Candra Gupta in the Ganges Valley. Due to good leadership, the Gupta Empire created a new age of Indian civilization. Three New Empires (cont.)Trade Routes of the Ancient WorldSection 2The Gupta Empire actively engaged in trade with China and other states in southeast Asia and the Mediterranean region. Domestic trade of salt, cloth, and iron increased, and cities along the trade routes prospered.Much of their wealth came from pilgrims who came from all over India and China to visit the major religious centers.Three New Empires (cont.)Section 2Faxian spent several years in the Gupta Empire, and wrote of the Gupta rulers, their practice of Buddhism, and the prosperity of the empire.In the late fifth century A.D., Huns from the northwest attacked the empire, weakening it. In the middle of the seventh century, the empire collapsed, and north India would not be reunited for centuries.Three New Empires (cont.)ABCDSection 2What influence guided the decisions of the Indian ruler Aśoka?A. BuddhismB. His grandfatherC. His armyD. Hinduism Section 2Indian AccomplishmentsIndia produced great works in almost all cultural fields, including literature, architecture, and science.Section 2The Vedas were recorded in Sanskrit and contained religious chants and stories.India’s great epics, the Mahabharata and Ramayana, tell of the legendary deeds of Great Indian warriors.Indian Accomplishments (cont.)The most famous section of the book, called the Bhagavad Gita, is a sermon by the god Krishna on the eve of a major battle.Section 2One of the most popular Sanskrit poems, The Cloud Messenger, was written by the Gupta era poet Kālidāsa.Indian architecture was influenced by Buddhism. The three main types of structures were religious in nature, and were the pillar, stupa, and rock chamber. Indian Accomplishments (cont.)Āryabhata was a famous mathematician of the Gupta Empire who used algebra. Section 2Indian mathematicians also introduced the concept of the zero, and used a symbol (0) for it. This numerical system—the Indian-Arabic numerical system—was adopted by Arab scholars, and eventually by Europeans.Indian Accomplishments (cont.)ABCDSection 2What were recorded in the Vedas?A. The laws of Aśoka B. Religious chants and storiesC. Stories written about Indian warriorsD. Sanskrit poetry Section 2-EndSection 3-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values China developed unique philosophies, political theories, and products. Section 3-Key TermsContent VocabularyaristocracyMandate of HeavenDaofilial piety pictographs ideographsConfucianismDaoismLegalismSection 3-Key TermsAcademic VocabularycyclephilosophyPeople and PlacesHuang HeChang JiangConfuciusLaozi ethicalABSection 3-Polling QuestionDo you think living near mountains is more beneficial to a society than living near an ocean?A. YesB. NoSection 3The Impact of GeographyChina’s physical geography influenced the location of its early civilizations.Section 3Ancient Chinese culture began in the agriculturally rich valley located between the Huang He (Yellow River) and Chang Jiang (Yangtze River). Only ten percent of Chinese land is suitable for farming.The Impact of Geography (cont.)Section 3Much of the land in the empire is made up of deserts and mountains, isolating China from other parts of Asia.China’s climate varies from region to region based on monsoons and elevation.The Impact of Geography (cont.)The Impact of Geography on Early Chinese CivilizationsABCDSection 3Which of the following is the accurate percentage of suitable farming land in all of China?A. 10% B. 30%C. 50%D. 70%Section 3The Shang DynastyOracle bones, bronzes, and excavations tell about life during the Shang dynasty.Section 3The first Chinese civilization, the Xia dynasty, dates back to 4000 B.C.The Shang dynasty (1750 B.C.–1045 B.C.) was an agricultural society ruled by an aristocracy.Politically, the Shang king ruled from the capital city at Anyang. The Shang Dynasty (cont.)Shang and Zhou DynastiesSection 3Aristocratic landowners waged war and controlled territories for the king.Although most of the people of the empire were peasants who farmed the aristocracy’s land, Shang society also included artisans, merchants, and slaves.The Chinese believed in supernatural forces, and relied on the priests’ interpretations of oracle bones for advice. The Shang Dynasty (cont.)Section 3Bones were heated until they cracked and were then interpreted by the priests.The Shang Chinese are also known for their mastery of bronze casting.The Shang Dynasty (cont.)ABCDSection 3How did the Shang rulers communicate with the gods?A. Human sacrificeB. Incense burningC. Oracle bonesD. Temples of the aristocracySection 3The Zhou DynastyThe concept of the Mandate of Heaven began with the Zhou dynasty.Section 3The Zhou dynasty was the longest lasting dynasty in Chinese history (1045 B.C. to 256 B.C.).Although the Zhou dynasty continued the political system of the Shang dynasty, the basic principle of the government was the Mandate of Heaven.The king was expected to rule by the Dao. If the King neglected to keep the gods pleased, he could be replaced.The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)Section 3The Mandate of Heaven influenced Chinese political history. A pattern of dynastic cycles began; empires ruled until they began to decle and eventually were replaced by new ruling families.Poor leadership and a civil war known as the Period of the Warring States ended the Zhou dynasty. The Qin created a new dynasty in 221 B.C.The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)Dynastic Cycles and the Mandate of HeavenSection 3At the center of the concept of family in China was belief in filial piety. Every family member had his or her own place, and subordinated his or her needs to that of the head male of the house. Male supremacy was a key element in the social system of China. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)Section 3Major advancements were made under Zhou leadership: Irrigation and iron tools increased food production dramatically. Chinese silk was an important element of trade and was found as far away as Greece.The Chinese created their own written language based on pictographs and ideographs.The Zhou Dynasty (cont.)ABCDSection 3What influenced the dynastic cycles of empires in China?A. The Mandate of Heaven B. Pictographs C. Filial pietyD. AristocracySection 3Chinese PhilosophyChinese philosophers emphasized stability and order in society.Section 3Confucianism is a system of political and ethical ideas intended to help restore order.Confucius was a philosopher who lived in a time of chaos and war. His ideas became a widely accepted philosophy that was studied by Chinese students.Confucius’s ideas were not spiritual, but political and ethical.The two most significant elements of Confucianism were duty and humanity.Chinese Philosophy (cont.)Section 3Daoism teaches that the will of Heaven is best followed through inaction so that nature is allowed to take its course.According to tradition, Daoism is based on the teachings of Laozi, the Old Master.Daoism is based on the belief that harmony with the universal order can be achieved by not interfering with the natural order of the world.Chinese Philosophy (cont.)Section 3Legalism was the third popular philosophy of ancient China.Legalism proposed that human beings were evil by nature.Legalists believed that a strong ruler was needed for an orderly society.To Legalists, harsh laws and strict control of the people would cause commoners to serve the interests of the ruler.Chinese Philosophy (cont.)ABCDSection 3Which of the following was not a popular philosophy in early China?A. Legalism B. DaoismC. ConfucianismD. LaozismSection 3-EndSection 4-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaOrder and Security The Qin and Han dynasties established strong central governments that were the basis for future dynasties. Section 4-Key TermsContent Vocabularyregimecensorate Academic VocabularyindividualityideologyinstitutedSection 4-Key TermsPeople and PlacesQin ShihuangdiGobiXiongnu Liu PangHan WudiSouth China SeaABSection 4-Polling QuestionDo you agree or disagree that the strongest empires in the world have been ruled by repressive leaders?A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 4The Qin DynastyQin Shihuangdi unified the Chinese world using force against invaders and harsh treatment of his subjects.Section 4In 221 B.C., the Qin dynasty was founded by Qin Shihuangdi. He created a single monetary system and built roads throughout the empire.Qin Shihuangdi extended his borders by using his military forces. To supply his armies, he built a canal from central to southern China.The Qin Dynasty (cont.)Section 4In 1974, farmers digging a well near Xi’an unearthed a pit of more than 6000 clay soldiers. Each figure exhibits the individuality of Qin Shihuangdi’s real soldiers.To prevent incursions from the nomadic peoples of the Gobi region, Qin Shihuangdi started construction of the Great Wall. The Qin Dynasty (cont.)ChinaSection 4These nomads, known as the Xiongnu to Chinese, were fierce warriors who rode horses.The Qin dynasty dramatically changed Chinese politics, and Qin Shihuangdi instituted forced labor projects, higher taxes, and censorship of speech.The Qin Dynasty (cont.)Section 4The official ideology of the regime was Legalism. A censorate was created to ensure that government officials were doing their jobs.The Qin dynasty would be overthrown following Qin Shihuangdi’s death in 210 B.C., due to the emperor’s harsh policies.The Qin Dynasty (cont.)Building the Great WallABCDSection 4How did Qin Shihuangdi impact the Chinese political system?A. He forced all government officials to join the army. B. He created an administration to inspect the jobs of government officials.C. He allowed women to vote.D. He made Buddhism the official religion of the state.Section 4The Han DynastyThe Han dynasty refined the political structures of the Qin.Section 4Liu Pang, a peasant by birth, created the Han dynasty, which is considered one of the greatest dynasties in Chinese history.Han rulers continued the Qin system of choosing government officials based on merit rather than birth. The Han introduced civil service exams and a school to train candidates. The Han Dynasty (cont.)Qin and Han DynastiesSection 4Han Wudi extended the empire by adding area in south Asia along the South China Sea.New technologies in textile manufacturing, water mills for grinding grain, and iron casting added to the economic prosperity of the Han empire.Steel was invented and paper was developed during the Han reign.The Han Dynasty (cont.)Qin and Han DynastiesSection 4Ships using rudders enabled Chinese merchant ships to sail into the wind.The Han dynasty collapsed in A.D. 220 due to weak rulers, official corruption, and an uneven distribution of land. The next great dynasty would not arise for 400 years. The Han Dynasty (cont.)ABCDSection 4What new technologies were developed during the Han era?A. Porcelain and terra-cotta B. Bronze and silkC. Paper currency and oil drillingD. Paper and the invention of steelSection 4-EndVS 1VS 2VS 3VS 4VS-EndFigure 1Figure 1aFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 8Figure 9Figure 10Figure 11Chapter Trans MenuChapter Transparencies MenuChapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.Chapter TransUnit Timeline TransCnETransDFS Trans 1DFS Trans 2DFS Trans 3DFS Trans 4Vocab1monsoona seasonal wind pattern in southern Asia that blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer, bringing heavy rains, and cold, dry air from the northeast during the winter Vocab2Sanskritthe first writing system of the Aryans, developed around 1000 B.C. Vocab3castea set of rigid categories in ancient India that determined a person’s occupation and economic potential, as well as his or her position in society, based partly on skin color Vocab4varnassocial groups that rank people from high to lowVocab5Hinduismthe major Indian religious system, which had its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryans who settled India after 1500 B.C. Vocab6yogaa method of training developed by the Hindus that is supposed to lead to oneness with God Vocab7reincarnationthe rebirth of an individual’s soul in a different form after death Vocab8karmain Hinduism, the force generated by a person’s actions that determines how the person will be reborn in the next life Vocab9dharmain Hinduism, the divine law that rules karma; it requires all people to do their duty based on their status in societyVocab10Buddhisma religious doctrine introduced in northern India in the sixth century B.C. by Siddhārtha Gautama, known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One” Vocab11nirvanain Buddhism, ultimate reality, the end of the self and a reunion with the Great World Soul Vocab12viaby way of Vocab13revealshow; to make known Vocab14Silk Roada route between the Roman Empire and China, so called because silk was China’s most valuable product Vocab15pilgrima person who travels to a shrine or other holy place Vocab16Vedasthe earliest known Indian literature, which contain religious chants and stories that were originally passed down orally from generation to generation and then recorded in Sanskrit after writing developed Vocab17Bhagavad Gita, Thepart of the Indian epic Mahabharata; the Gita, a sermon by the god Krishna on the eve of a major battle, sets forth one key point of Indian culture—one must not worry about the success or failure of an action but should only be aware of the moral rightness of the act itself Vocab18conversionthe change from one belief or form to another Vocab19welfarewell-beingVocab20aristocracyan upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another Vocab21Mandate of Heavenclaim by Chinese kings of the Zhou dynasty that they had direct authority from heaven to rule and to keep order in the universe Vocab22Dao“Way,” the key to proper behavior under Confucianism Vocab23filial pietythe duty of family members to subordinate their needs and desires to those of the male head of the family, a concept important in Confucianism Vocab24pictographa picture symbol, or character, that represents an object; used in ancient Chinese script Vocab25ideographa character that combines two or more pictographs to represent an idea; used in ancient Chinese script Vocab26Confucianismthe system of political and ethical ideas formulated by the Chinese philosopher Confucius toward the end of the Zhou dynasty; it was intended to help restore order to a society that was in a state of confusion Vocab27Daoisma system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi; teaches that the will of Heaven is best followed through inaction so that nature is allowed to take its course Vocab28Legalisma popular philosophy developed in China toward the end of the Zhou dynasty; it proposes that human beings are evil by nature and can be brought to the correct path only by harsh laws Vocab29cyclea series of events that recur regularly and usually lead back to the starting point Vocab30philosophyan organized system of thought, from the Greek for “love of wisdom” Vocab31ethicalconforming to accepted standards of conduct; moral Vocab32regimethe government in power Vocab33censoratepart of the Chinese bureaucracy that made sure government officials were doing their jobs Vocab34individualitya total character that distinguishes an individual from others Vocab35ideologya set of beliefs Vocab36institutedput into action HelpClick the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. 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