Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 2 Western Asia and Egypt, 3500-500 B.C

Tài liệu Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 2 Western Asia and Egypt, 3500-500 B.C: Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Civilization Begins in MesopotamiaSection 2: Egyptian CivilizationSection 3: New Centers of CivilizationSection 4: The Rise of New EmpiresVisual SummaryChapter Intro How does progress affect history?During the 1960s, Egypt built the Aswan High Dam to control flooding of the Nile River. The lake rising behind the dam threatened to destroy ancient Egyptian monuments. An international team saved several temples including Abu Simbel—Ramses II’s temple. Abu Simbel was carved into 20-ton blocks, moved 200 feet, and reassembled. In this chapter you will learn about Egyptian rulers and temples.• Why would other countries help Egypt preserve its monuments?• How can countries adapt to changing needs and still preserve their history?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Civilization Begins in MesopotamiaWhy were the first farming societies located along rivers?Chapter Intro 2Egyptian CivilizationWhat factors contribute to a stable and...

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Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Civilization Begins in MesopotamiaSection 2: Egyptian CivilizationSection 3: New Centers of CivilizationSection 4: The Rise of New EmpiresVisual SummaryChapter Intro How does progress affect history?During the 1960s, Egypt built the Aswan High Dam to control flooding of the Nile River. The lake rising behind the dam threatened to destroy ancient Egyptian monuments. An international team saved several temples including Abu Simbel—Ramses II’s temple. Abu Simbel was carved into 20-ton blocks, moved 200 feet, and reassembled. In this chapter you will learn about Egyptian rulers and temples.• Why would other countries help Egypt preserve its monuments?• How can countries adapt to changing needs and still preserve their history?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Civilization Begins in MesopotamiaWhy were the first farming societies located along rivers?Chapter Intro 2Egyptian CivilizationWhat factors contribute to a stable and lasting civilization?Chapter Intro 3New Centers of CivilizationHow did the monotheism of the Israelites differ from religious beliefs of previous cultures?Chapter Intro 4The Rise of New EmpiresWhat did lasting empires have in common?Chapter Preview-EndSection 1-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaPhysical Geography Fertile soil between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers allowed an early civilization to flourish in Mesopotamia. Section 1-Key TermsContent Vocabularypolytheisticcity-stateziggurattheocracycuneiform empirepatriarchalAcademic Vocabularytransport innovationsSection 1-Key TermsPeople and PlacesTigris RiverEuphrates River MesopotamiaFertile CrescentSumeriansUrukAkkadiansSargonBabylonHammurabiABSection 1-Polling QuestionDo you agree that geography plays an important role in the development of societies?A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 1Geography and ReligionThe physical environment of Mesopotamia supported the development of civilization and influenced people’s religious beliefs. Section 1The first civilization began in a valley known as Mesopotamia, which was between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers. Mesopotamia (today’s Iraq) was located in the Fertile Crescent, an area of good farmland located between the Mediterranean Sea and the Persian Gulf. Geography and Religion (cont.)Ancient MesopotamiaSection 1The Sumerians created the first civilization in Mesopotamia around 3000 B.C.Mesopotamians were polytheistic, and believed in nearly 3,000 gods and goddesses.Geography and Religion (cont.)ABCDSection 1What enabled the Mesopotamians to switch from a nomadic lifestyle to permanent settlements?A. Polytheism B. CivilizationsC. Large armiesD. Farming Section 1City-States of Ancient MesopotamiaReligion played a powerful role in the economic, political, and social structure of Mesopotamian city-states.Section 1Sumerian cities, such as Eridu, Uruk, and Ur, gained political and economic control of Mesopotamia.The basic units of Sumerian society were independent city-states. City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.)Section 1Much of the wealth of the cities was dedicated to building temples dedicated to the god or goddess of the city. These temples were often built atop a massive stepped tower called a ziggurat.Priests and priestesses held a great deal of power, making the state a theocracy, a government by divine authority.City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.)Section 1Farming was the basis of the economy of the Sumerian city-states. Sumerian metalworkers used copper, gold, and silver to make tools and jewelry. Sumerians discovered how to make bronze by adding tin to copper. Bronze is a hard metal used for making tools and weapons.City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.)Section 1The invention of the wheel in 3000 B.C. made the transport of goods much easier.Sumerian society was divided into three major social groups: nobles, commoners, and slaves.City-States of Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.)Mesopotamia Trade RouteABCDSection 1Which of the following most accurately describes a theocracy?A. A government by divine authorityB. A society of farmers C. A society with different social classesD. A government where the king is the ruler Section 1The Creativity of the SumeriansThe Sumerians invented writing and several new technologies that made life easier. Section 1The Sumerians are credited with many technological innovations that affect our lives today.Around 3000 B.C., the Sumerians created a system of writing known as cuneiform (“wedge-shaped”). People used a stylus or other tool to make wedge-shaped impressions on clay tablets, which were then baked or dried in the sun.The Creativity of the Sumerians (cont.)Section 1Writing was important because it allowed Mesopotamian peoples to keep records and to communicate ideas with others.The Creativity of the Sumerians (cont.)Section 1Examples of Sumerian technology and innovation:Wagon wheelPotter’s wheelSundialArch used in constructionBronze metalworkAdvances in mathematics, geometry, and astronomy The Creativity of the Sumerians (cont.)ABCDSection 1Which of the following was not an example of Sumerian technology?A. Bronze weapons B. Wagon wheelsC. Ceramic pottery D. Use of geometry to erect buildings Section 1Empires in Ancient MesopotamiaStrong leaders established empires and codified the laws of Mesopotamia. Section 1Around 2340 B.C., the Akkadians, a people north of the Sumerian city-states, took control of the Sumerian city-states and established the first empire in world history.The leader of the Akkadian Empire was Sargon.Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.)Section 1In 1792 B.C., the city-state of Babylon took control of Sumer and Akkad. The Babylonian ruler was Hammurabi.The Code of Hammurabi was a collection of written laws based on a system of strict justice.Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.)The Influence of HammurabiSection 1The Code of Hammurabi covered:Empires in Ancient Mesopotamia (cont.)Criminal offensesDuties of public officialsConsumer protection lawsMarriage and familyMesopotamian society was patriarchal—men dominated society.ABCDSection 1Which of the following set up the first empire in world history?A. Babylon B. HammurabiC. CuneiformD. Akkadia Section 1-EndSection 2-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaOrder and Security Continuity and stability were characteristics of Egyptian civilization for thousands of years. Section 2-Key TermsContent Vocabularydynastypharaohbureaucracyvizier mummification hieroglyphicshieratic scriptAcademic Vocabularymajoridentifyingphysical Section 2-Key TermsPeople and PlacesNile RiverLower EgyptUpper EgyptMenesGizaHyksosHatshepsutAkhenatenTutankhamenRamses IICleopatra VIIABSection 2-Polling QuestionIs religion an essential component for empires?A. YesB. NoSection 2Geography and ReligionThe Nile River was fundamental to the development of Egyptian civilization. Section 2The Nile River is the longest river in the world. It begins in central Africa and empties into the Mediterranean Sea to the north.The Nile River splits into two major branches:Geography and Religion (cont.)Lower Egypt is the delta area that flows into the Mediterranean Sea.Upper Egypt is the land to the south which is upstream from the Mediterranean Sea.Section 2Egypt’s important cities developed at the tip of the delta, where the Nile River divides.Regular flooding from the Nile River created an area of rich farm soil. Farmers in the Nile Valley grew a surplus of crops, making Egypt very prosperous.Geography and Religion (cont.)The Geography of Ancient EgyptSection 2The Nile River was the fastest way to travel through the kingdom, making both transportation and communication easier.Natural barriers protected Egypt from invasion.Geography and Religion (cont.)The Geography of Ancient EgyptSection 2The Egyptians were polytheistic.Sun Gods:Geography and Religion (cont.)source of lifeRe is one of the Sun God’s names.River and Land Gods:Osiris brought civilization to Egypt and was a symbol of resurrection. By identifying with Osiris, Egyptians hoped to gain life after death.ABCDSection 2Which of the following enabled farmers to grow crops in the Nile Valley?A. The use of slaves B. Annual flooding of the Nile River C. New farming equipmentD. Egyptian gods Section 2Egyptian KingdomsEgyptian history is divided into three major periods, called kingdoms. Section 2Around 3100 B.C., King Menes united Upper and Lower Egypt into a single kingdom and created the first royal dynasty.Scholars divide Egyptian history into three periods: the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom.Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.)Section 2The Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.–2200 B.C.)Egyptian monarchs called pharaohs ruled Egypt with absolute power.A government bureaucracy developed during this period.The vizier was in charge of the government administration. Pyramids were built to honor the dead. Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.)Section 2Egyptians practiced mummification to preserve the physical body. It was believed that preserving the physical body would allow the person’s spirit to return.Pyramids were tombs for the mummified bodies of pharaohs, as well as symbols of royal power. The largest pyramid was built for King Khufu at Giza.Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.)Section 2The Middle Kingdom (2055 B.C.–1650 B.C.)A golden age of stability and expansion into Africa and western Asia.Pharaohs built public works and provided for the public welfare of the people.The Middle Kingdom ended with an invasion of the Hyksos from western Asia around 1650 B.C.Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.)Section 2The New Kingdom (1550 B.C.–1070 B.C.)Hatshepsut was one of the first women to become pharaoh.Akhenaten closed the temples of all other gods except for Aten, god of the sun disk.The popular boy-pharaoh Tutankhamen restored the old gods.Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.)Section 2Ramses II restored the old borders of the empire that had been lost during the religious revolution under Akhenaten.Cleopatra VII unsuccessfully fought for Egyptian independence in the first century B.C. Egyptian Kingdoms (cont.)ABCDSection 2Which is true of the Old Kingdom, the Middle Kingdom, and the New Kingdom?A. They all featured women rulers.B. They featured long-term stability and strong leadership. C. A pyramid was built for each period. D. The kingdoms all had the same ruling family.Section 2Life in Ancient EgyptEgyptian Society was organized into classes.Section 2Egyptian society was highly structured and “pyramid” shaped.PharaohUpper class: priests, nobles, government officialsMiddle class: merchants, artisans, scribes, tax collectorsLower class: peasants, farmersLife in Ancient Egypt (cont.)ABCDSection 2Which of the following professions would not have come from the middle class?A. Scribe B. Tax collectorC. FarmerD. Merchant Section 2Egyptian AccomplishmentsEgyptians developed complex writing and made advances in the arts and sciences. Section 2Hieroglyphics, or “sacred writings,” appeared around 3000 B.C. and were carved into stone.Hieratic script was a simplified version of writing used for business transactions and record keeping. It was written on papyrus. Egyptian Accomplishments (cont.)Section 2Advances in Egyptian Art and ScienceArchitecture: pyramids, monuments, and temples Mathematics and Geometry A 365-day calendar Human anatomy: embalming, treating wounds and disease Egyptian Accomplishments (cont.)ABCDSection 2How did the Egyptians keep records of daily activities? A. Carvings in stoneB. Writings on papyrus C. Beads kept in a jar D. Etches on wax tabletsSection 2-EndSection 3-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values The Israelites’ belief in one God resulted in a distinct society. Section 3-Key TermsContent Vocabularypastoral nomadmonotheistic Academic Vocabularycreateddomesticated technology Section 3-Key TermsPeople and PlacesIndo-EuropeansHittites PhoeniciansIsraelitesKing SolomonJerusalemABSection 3-Polling QuestionDo you think residents of your community are suspicious of strangers?A. YesB. NoSection 3The Role of Nomadic PeopleNomadic peoples, especially the Indo-Europeans, served an important function for civilized societies by spreading goods and new technology. Section 3In central Asia, pastoral nomads lived on the fringes of civilization. These people depended on hunting, gathering, herding, and sometimes farming for survival.These people domesticated animals for food and clothing.The Role of Nomadic People (cont.)Section 3People in settled communities and nomads traded goods and technology. The nomadic peoples sometimes overran civilizations and created their own empires. The Role of Nomadic People (cont.)Section 3The Indo-Europeans were one of the most important nomadic peoples.Originated in the steppe region north of the Black Sea Spoke Greek, Latin, Persian, Sanskrit, and the Germanic languages Moved to India, western Asia, and Europe The Role of Nomadic People (cont.)Section 3Hittites (1600 B.C.–1200 B.C.) created an empire in western Asia and were the first to use iron. The Role of Nomadic People (cont.)The Hittite Empire, 1650–1200 B.C.ABCDSection 3Who were the first Indo-Europeans to use iron?A. Greeks B. SyriansC. HittitesD. Pastoral nomads Section 3The PhoeniciansThe Phoenicians created an international trade empire and invented an alphabet.Section 3After the fall of the Egyptian and Hittite empires, many city-states and kingdoms emerged.The Phoenicians lived on the Mediterranean coast in Palestine. They built ships and became great international sea traders. They sailed to Britain, Spain, and the west coast of Africa.The Phoenicians (cont.)Phoenicia and its Colonies, 1000 B.C.–700 B.C.Section 3The Phoenicians are best known for their alphabet. It was copied by the Greeks and the Romans. The Phoenicians (cont.)Hebrew, Phoenician, and Latin AlphabetsABCDSection 3What was the most significant cultural invention of the Phoenicians?A. Their alphabetB. Maps from their exploration C. Glass D. Dome-shaped templesSection 3The IsraelitesThe Israelites had lasting influence through their religious beliefs rather than from military power. Section 3The Israelites lived south of the Phoenicians and were a minor factor in politics. The Israelites were monotheistic and their religion, Judaism, influenced Christianity and Islam.Around 970 B.C., King Solomon established an empire in the land known today as Israel. The capital was Jerusalem. The Israelites (cont.)Section 3After Solomon’s death in 930 B.C., the Israelite empire was divided: The Kingdom of Israel was located in the north. The Assyrians conquered the ten northern tribes of the Kingdom of Israel in 721 B.C. The Kingdom of Judah was to the south. The Chaldeans defeated the Assyrians and the two tribes of the Kingdom of Judah in 586 B.C. The Israelites (cont.)Section 3The religion of the Jews was unique among religions of Egypt and western Asia. Despite being conquered by other states, the Jewish people would not accept the gods of their conquerors.The Israelites (cont.)ABCDSection 3Which aspect of Israelite culture had the greatest impact on Western civilization?A. The use of iron B. King Solomon’s wisdomC. Trade routesD. A monotheistic religionSection 3-EndSection 4-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaCompetition Among Countries The Assyrians and the Persians established vast empires in the ancient world.Section 4-Key TermsContent Vocabularysatrapysatrapmonarchy Academic Vocabularyrestraintsought sustained Section 4-Key TermsPeople and PlacesAssyriansNebuchadnezzar PersiansCyrusDarius Royal RoadImmortalsZoroasterABSection 4-Polling QuestionDo you agree that it is more important to be able to conquer an enemy than it is to rule an empire?A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 4The Assyrian EmpireThe Assyrians ruled with harsh tactics that brought about the fall of their empire. Section 4The Assyrians were a Semitic-speaking people who established an empire in 700 B.C. Assyrians used iron weapons and a large, well-organized, and disciplined army to conquer others.A major factor in the army’s success was its ability to use different military tactics. The Assyrian Empire (cont.)ABCDSection 4Which of the following is not a reason for the success of the Assyrian conquest of other nations?A. Wealth from the captured trade routesB. The use of iron weapons C. A large, disciplined army D. The army could utilize different military tacticsSection 4The Persian EmpireStrong Persian leaders conquered and ruled a vast empire for more than 200 years. Section 4After the collapse of the Assyrian Empire, the Chaldean king Nebuchadnezzar II made Babylonia the leading power in western Asia. The capital of Babylonia was one of the greatest cities in the ancient world.The Persian Empire (cont.)Section 4Babylonia was conquered by the Persians, an Indo-European people from today’s Iran. The nomadic Persians were unified under one ruling family with dynamic leaders. The Persian Empire (cont.)The Persian Empire, 500 B.C.Section 4In 539 B.C., Cyrus captured Babylonia. He was known as Cyrus “the Great” because of his wisdom and restraint toward his conquered foes.Cyrus respected other civilizations and used Assyrian, Egyptian, and Babylonian designs for building his palaces.The Persian Empire (cont.)Section 4Cambyses sought to extend the empire by successfully invading Egypt.Darius added territory in western India and Thrace, today’s Greece. He divided the empire into provinces called satrapies. Each satrapy was ruled by a satrap who collected taxes, provided justice, and recruited soldiers.The Persian Empire (cont.)Section 4The Royal Road stretched across the Persian kingdom and allowed for communication and travel. This communication and travel sustained the Persian Empire.The power of the Persian Empire came from its military. Its professional soldiers were known as the Immortals because when one was killed, he was immediately replaced. The Persian Empire (cont.)Section 4Persian religion was known as Zoroastrianism. This monotheistic religion was started by the prophet Zoroaster, who wrote his teachings in the Zend Avesta.The Persian Empire was weakened by struggles over succession to the monarchy. The Empire finally fell to Alexander the Great and the Greeks in the 330s B.C.The Persian Empire (cont.)ABCDSection 4What caused the Persian Empire to decline after the death of Darius?A. The Royal Road fell into disrepair.B. Succession of Darius was uncertain, causing internal struggles. C. The rise of Zoroastrianism divided people.D. They were defeated in battle by the Greeks.Section 4-EndVS 1Ancient EnvironmentsThe Egyptians received fertile soil from the floodwaters of the Nile for farming.The Phoenicians set up a trading empire and colonies on the Mediterranean.The Mesopotamians created irrigation and flood control systems.VS 2Ancient ReligionsThe Mesopotamians and the Egyptians, who both were polytheistic, believed their rulers derived their power from the gods.The Israelites were monotheistic and believed God communicated through prophets.The Persians followed Zoroastrianism, a monotheistic religion.VS 3Ancient InnovationsThe Mesopotamians established a collection of laws, along with inventing the arch, dome, wheel, and a system of writing.The Phoenicians invented the alphabet.The Persians created the concept of a standing army.VS-EndFigure 1Figure 1aFigure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9Chapter Trans MenuChapter Transparencies MenuChapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.Chapter TransUnit Timeline TransCnETransDFS Trans 1DFS Trans 2DFS Trans 3DFS Trans 4Vocab1polytheistichaving many gods Vocab2city-statea state with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside Vocab3ziggurata massive, stepped tower on which was built a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city Vocab4theocracygovernment by divine authority Vocab5cuneiform“wedge-shaped,” a system of writing developed by the Sumerians using a reed stylus to create wedge-shaped impressions on a clay tablet Vocab6empirea large political unit or state, usually under a single leader, that controls many peoples or territories Vocab7patriarchaldominated by men Vocab8transportthe moving of goods or people Vocab9innovationa new idea, method, or device Vocab10dynastya family of rulers whose right to rule is passed on within the family Vocab11pharaohthe most common of the various titles for ancient Egyptian monarchs; the term originally meant “great house” or “palace” Vocab12bureaucracyan administrative organization that relies on nonelective officials and regular procedures Vocab13viziera high government official in ancient Egypt or in Muslim countries Vocab14mummificationa process of slowly drying a dead body to prevent it from decaying Vocab15hieroglyphica picture or symbol used in a hieroglyphic system of writing Vocab16hieratic scriptsimplified version of hieroglyphics used in ancient Egypt for business transactions, record keeping, and the general needs of daily life Vocab17majorgreat; significant in size or importance Vocab18identifyingbelieving that one is the same or very similar to another Vocab19physicalrelating to the body Vocab20pastoral nomada person who domesticates animals for food and clothing and moves along regular migratory routes to provide a steady source of nourishment for those animals Vocab21monotheistichaving one god Vocab22createdmade or brought something new into Vocab23domesticatedadapted to life with and to the advantage of humans Vocab24technologythe science or study of the practical or industrial arts; applied sciences Vocab25satrapyone of the 20 provinces into which Darius divided the Persian Empire Vocab26satrap“protector of the Kingdom”; the governor of a province (satrapy) of the Persian Empire under Darius Vocab27monarchygovernment by a sovereign ruler such as a king or queen Vocab28restrainta controlling force Vocab29soughtmade an attempt; tried Vocab30sustainedsupported or held up HelpClick the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu, Chapter Introduction slides, or Visual Summary slides to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency.Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation.Click the History Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the slide show.Click the Help button to access this screen.Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Maps in Motion, Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, Concepts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens. To use this Presentation Plus! product:End of Custom ShowsThis slide is intentionally blank.

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