Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 10 Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500

Tài liệu Bài giảng Glencoe World History - Chapter 10 Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500: Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Peasants, Trade, and CitiesSection 2: Medieval ChristianitySection 3: Culture of the High Middle AgesSection 4: The Late Middle AgesVisual SummaryChapter Intro What caused the formation of universities?The intellectual revival of the High Middle Ages led to the creation of universities. The University of Oxford, shown in this photo, formed when Henry II banned English students from the University of Paris in 1167. In this chapter you will learn more about culture and society during the Middle Ages.• How do you think universities have changed since the High Middle Ages?• What clues in the photograph on this page tell when the University of Oxford was built?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Peasants, Trade, and CitiesHow do advances in agriculture affect both farmers and city dwellers?Chapter Intro 2Medieval ChristianityWhat happens when there is no separation of church and state?Chapter Intro 3Culture of the High Middle...

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Splash ScreenChapter MenuChapter IntroductionSection 1: Peasants, Trade, and CitiesSection 2: Medieval ChristianitySection 3: Culture of the High Middle AgesSection 4: The Late Middle AgesVisual SummaryChapter Intro What caused the formation of universities?The intellectual revival of the High Middle Ages led to the creation of universities. The University of Oxford, shown in this photo, formed when Henry II banned English students from the University of Paris in 1167. In this chapter you will learn more about culture and society during the Middle Ages.• How do you think universities have changed since the High Middle Ages?• What clues in the photograph on this page tell when the University of Oxford was built?Chapter Intro Chapter Intro Chapter Intro 1Peasants, Trade, and CitiesHow do advances in agriculture affect both farmers and city dwellers?Chapter Intro 2Medieval ChristianityWhat happens when there is no separation of church and state?Chapter Intro 3Culture of the High Middle AgesHow does architecture reflect a society’s values?Chapter Intro 4The Late Middle AgesHow do changes in the size of population affect a society?Chapter Preview-EndSection 1-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaOrder and Security New farming practices supported population growth, and the revival of trade led to a money-based economy and the rise of cities. Section 1-Key TermsContent Vocabularycarruca manor serfs money economycommercial capitalismbourgeoisiepatricians guilds apprentice journeymen masterpieceSection 1-Key TermsAcademic VocabularytechnologycrucialPeople and PlacesVeniceFlandersABSection 1-Polling QuestionDo you think that technology plays an important role in the growth of populations? A. YesB. NoSection 1The New AgricultureNew inventions for farming and more efficient use of land contributed to population growth in the High Middle Ages.Section 1The European population doubled in size between 1000 and 1300.The large population increase in Europe was due in part to a more peaceful environment and changes in technology.Food production was increased by using scythes, axes, and hoes.The New Agriculture (cont.)Section 1A new plow called the carruca led to the growth of farming villages. People had to work together to buy the iron needed to make the plow and share the team of animals needed to pull the plow.Europeans also started using three-field rotations, harnessing wind and water, and using animal power to save labor and produce more crops.The New Agriculture (cont.)ABCDSection 1Iron was used to make all of the following except:A. Carruca B. NailsC. AxesD. BoatsSection 1The Manorial SystemUnder the manorial system of the Middle Ages, serfs worked the lands of lords.Section 1The manor was an agricultural estate run by a lord and worked by serfs.Serfs provided labor services, paid rents, and were subject to the control of the lord.The life of European peasants was very simple. They lived in wood framed cottages, generally consisting of one or two rooms.The Manorial System (cont.)Section 1The seasons of the year dictated peasant activities. Religious holidays provided peasants with time away from work and brought them into contact with the Church.Peasant women had to work in the field, raise children, and manage the household.The Manorial System (cont.)The Peasant’s Wheel of LifeSection 1Grains were used for making bread, the daily food of peasants, and ale. Vegetables, cheeses, and sometimes meat supplemented the meals of peasants.Water was not easy to obtain, so wine was the drink of the upper classes and ale was the drink of the poor.The Manorial System (cont.)ABCDSection 1By 800, approximately what percentage of the western European population were serfs? A. 20% B. 40%C. 60%D. 80%Section 1The Revival of TradeThe revival of trade during the High Middle Ages gave rise to a commercial revolution.Section 1Cities in strategic locations, such as Venice and Flanders, grew in size and wealth. Trade fairs were initiated by cities to encourage more trade.The Revival of Trade (cont.)Section 1As trade increased, demand for gold and silver coins increased. Eventually, a money economy replaced the barter system.New trading companies and banking firms led to the economic system of commercial capitalism.The Revival of Trade (cont.)ABCDSection 1What enabled Venice to become a major trading center?A. Development of a mercantile fleet B. Low taxesC. Use of silver coinsD. Influence of Muslim tradersSection 1The Growth of CitiesThe revival of trade spurred the growth of cities, which became centers for manufacturing and trade.Section 1The revival of trade led to a revival of cities.Merchants and artisans moved into these newly revitalized cities and became known as bourgeoisie.The people in the cities and towns slowly gained their independence from local lords. The cities created their own governments, and patricians were elected legally or illegally.The Growth of Cities (cont.)Medieval Trade RoutesSection 1Medieval towns were surrounded by stone walls and were cramped and dirty. Pollution and the threat of fire plagued the city inhabitants.People began to organize themselves into business associations. These guilds played a leading role in the economic life of cities. The Growth of Cities (cont.)Section 1A person who wanted to learn a trade went through a series of steps. People started as unpaid apprentices, earned wages as a journeyman, and could become a master by producing a masterpiece.The Growth of Cities (cont.)ABCDSection 1Which of the following best describes the cities of medieval Europe? A. Large houses B. Narrow streetsC. CleanD. Stone buildingsSection 1-EndSection 2-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaIdeas, Beliefs, and Values With its strong leadership, the Catholic Church became a dominant and forceful presence in medieval society.Section 2-Key TermsContent Vocabularylay investiture interdict sacraments heresy relics Academic VocabularypursueremoveSection 2-Key TermsPeople, Places, and EventsPapal States Pope Gregory VIIHenry IV Concordat of WormsPope Innocent IIICistercians Hildegard of BingenFranciscans Dominicans Saint Francis of AssisiAssisi Inquisition ABSection 2-Polling QuestionA religious leader can be an effective military leader. A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 2The Papal MonarchyDuring the papacy of Pope Innocent III in the thirteenth century, the Catholic Church reached the height of its political power.Section 2The popes of the Catholic Church had political and religious power since they controlled the Papal States.Pope Gregory VII wanted to free the Church of political interference from lords and kings and ended the practice of lay investiture.Gregory claimed that the pope had authority over the entire Christian world including its rulers. If rulers did not accept this, they would be removed.The Papal Monarchy (cont.)Section 2Henry IV of Germany disagreed with the pope’s view and a struggle known as the Investiture Controversy ensued.Under the Concordat of Worms agreement in 1122, a bishop in Germany was elected by the Church, and then the bishop paid homage to the king.The Papal Monarchy (cont.)Section 2Papal power was strengthened under Pope Innocent III who used the interdict to get his way.People feared not receiving sacraments, and pressured rulers to listen to the pope.The Papal Monarchy (cont.)ABCDSection 2Who fought the idea that the pope is the supreme ruler of all Christian lands? A. Gregory VII B. Henry IVC. Innocent IIID. Philip AugustusSection 2New Religious OrdersAs religious enthusiasm spread through Europe, new monastic orders emerged.Section 2In 1098, a group of monks who were unhappy with the lack of discipline at their monastery started the Cistercian order.Women increasingly became involved in religious orders. Intellectual women, such as Hildegard of Bingen, found convents a haven for their activities.New Religious Orders (cont.)Section 2In the 1200s, the Franciscans were founded by St. Francis of Assisi. Francis was a wealthy merchant from Assisi who decided to give up his worldly possessions and preach to the poor.The Franciscans became popular for their simplicity and devotion to the poor.New Religious Orders (cont.)Section 2The Dominican order was founded by Dominic de Guzmán. The Dominicans were dedicated to defending Church teachings from heresy.To deal with heretics, the Church created the Inquisition. This court had regular proceedings to find and try heretics. New Religious Orders (cont.)ABCDSection 2Which monastic order lived a strict life due to the lack of discipline in their monastery? A. Cistercians B. BingensC. FranciscansD. DominicansSection 2Religion in the High Middle AgesOrdinary people observed the Church’s sacraments, venerated saints, and took pilgrimages to holy shrines.Section 2The Church in the High Middle Ages played a vital role in the lives of Europeans.Some people, because of their holiness, were called saints and were revered by the people.Relics were usually the bones of saints or objects connected to saints. Worshipping relics and pilgrimages to holy sites were important to European Christians.Religion in the High Middle Ages (cont.)ABCDSection 2Which of the following was a site of the Christian pilgrimages? A. Rome B. VeniceC. CairoD. FlandersSection 2-EndSection 3-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaNew Technologies Technological innovations made Gothic cathedrals possible, while an intellectual revival led to the formation of universities.Section 3-Key TermsContent Vocabularytheology scholasticism vernacular chanson de gesteAcademic VocabularyconstructioncorporationSection 3-Key TermsPeople, Places, and EventsBologna Paris Oxford Aristotle Saint Thomas AquinasSumma TheologicaABSection 3-Polling QuestionArchitecture is an important representation of society’s ideals and values. A. AgreeB. DisagreeSection 3ArchitectureGothic cathedrals, an artistic triumph of the High Middle Ages, were built in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.Section 3In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, churches were built in the Romanesque style.The construction of the Romanesque churches was similar to the basilicas of the Roman era, except that instead of flat roofs, they had arched vaults.Architecture (cont.)Section 3Romanesque churches required massive pillars to hold up the stone roofs, and had little light due to the lack of windows.A new style, called Gothic, utilized ribbed vaults and flying buttresses to allow for higher ceilings and thinner walls. Gothic cathedrals were spectacular churches with stained-glass windows that symbolized the spirituality of the people. Architecture (cont.)ABCDSection 3Why were the walls of Romanesque churches so thick? A. To protect against attack B. To protect the clergyC. To protect the relics of the churchD. To support the stone roofSection 3UniversitiesMedieval university students applied scholasticism to the study of theology.Section 3The High Middle Ages saw the rise of universities.The first European university was established in Bologna, Italy. Soon, universities were set up in Paris, France, and Oxford in England. Students could earn a doctorate in law, medicine, or theology. Universities (cont.)University LocationsSection 3Theology, the most highly regarded subject, was influenced by scholasticism.Scholasticism attempted to reconcile Christian teachings with the works of the Greek philosophers such as Aristotle, who reached conclusions by rational thought, not by faith.In the 1200s, Saint Thomas Aquinas wrote his masterpiece Summa Theologica which concluded that reason could not conflict with truths arrived at through faith.Universities (cont.)ABCDSection 3Where was the first university in Europe located?A. Rome, Italy B. Bologna, ItalyC. Oxford, EnglandD. Paris, FranceSection 3Vernacular LiteratureTroubadour poetry and the heroic epic poem were popular forms of vernacular literature in the twelfth century.Section 3Latin was the universal language used in the Church and schools.New literature began to be written in vernacular, or everyday speech.The most popular vernacular literature of the twelfth century was troubadour poetry. Chanson de geste, or the heroic epic, was also popular.Vernacular Literature (cont.)ABCDSection 3Who mainly was the subject of troubadour poetry? A. Monks B. Knights and noblesC. Aristocratic womenD. PeasantsSection 3-EndSection 4-Main IdeaThe BIG IdeaDevastation of War Disastrous forces overwhelmed Europe in the fourteenth century with lasting consequences. Section 4-Key TermsContent Vocabularyanti-Semitism new monarchiestaille Academic VocabularyabandonedconsequencesSection 4-Key TermsPeople, Places, and EventsBlack Death Pope Boniface VIIIKing Philip IV Avignon Great Schism John Hus Henry V Agincourt Joan of Arc Orléans Isabella Ferdinand ABSection 4-Polling QuestionDo you think a deadly, communicable disease would significantly change your community economically and socially? A. YesB. NoSection 4The Black DeathSpreading throughout Europe during the mid-fourteenth century, the Black Death had disastrous social and economic effects.Section 4During the 1300s, the Black Death killed approximately one-third of the European population.The plague generally followed trade routes. It devastated urban centers, and villages in Germany and England were wiped off the map.The Black Death’s most common form was the bubonic plague, which was spread by fleas on rats. The Black Death (cont.)Spread of Black DeathSection 4The disease was so lethal, that family members often had to abandon one another.Effects of the Black Death:The Black Death (cont.)Approximately one-third to one-half of the population killedRise in anti-SemitismDecline in trade, labor shortages, and decreased demand for foodSpread of Black DeathSection 4Decline of serfdom and the influence of the ChurchGrowth of cities and peasant revoltsThe Black Death (cont.)Effects of the Black DeathABCDSection 4What animal is blamed for carrying the deadly bubonic plague? A. Dog B. BirdC. RatD. CatSection 4Decline of Church PowerThe Great Schism of the Catholic Church caused great political conflict and left Europe divided for four decades.Section 4In the 13th century, a struggle began between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France over the king’s right to tax the clergy.The struggle ended when Boniface VIII died after fleeing Philip’s forces. Philip then engineered the election of a French pope, Clement V, in 1305.Decline of Church Power (cont.)AvignonSection 4Clement V moved to Avignon in southern France. From 1305 to 1377 popes lived in Avignon.The election of the Italian Pope Urban VI was declared invalid by French cardinals, who elected a French pope which began the Great Schism.Decline of Church Power (cont.)Section 4John Hus, a Czech reformer, was burned at the stake for heresy for his attempts at reforming the Church.Both the papacy and the Church lost political and religious power due to the crises of the fourteenth century.Decline of Church Power (cont.)ABCDSection 4What caused the struggle between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV? A. Boniface took control of the French army. B. Philip wanted a French pope.C. Philip wanted to tax the clergy.D. Boniface wanted to move the Papal States to France.Section 4The Hundred Years’ WarEngland and France waged the long, violent Hundred Years’ War.Section 4The Hundred Years’ War began in 1337 when the king of France seized the English controlled duchy of Gascony in France.At the Battle of Crécy in 1346, English archers using longbows devastated the French knights. The Hundred Years’ War (cont.)Hundred Years’ WarSection 4In 1415, the English king Henry V again defeated the French at the Battle of Agincourt and the English controlled northern France.A peasant named Joan of Arc believed that God had chosen her to save France. The inspired French army seized Orléans.The French eventually won the war in 1453, aided by the use of the cannon and gunpowder.The Hundred Years’ War (cont.)ABCDSection 4How were the English able to defeat the French knights at Crécy and Agincourt? A. Horses B. LongbowsC. The navyD. CannonsSection 4Political RecoveryFrance, England, and Spain emerged as new monarchies by the late 1400s.Section 4In the 1400s, a number of new rulers in Europe attempted to centralize power and establish new monarchies.Political Recovery (cont.)Section 4The New Monarchies:FrancePolitical Recovery (cont.)France became unified after the Hundred Years’ War.There was a permanent royal income due to increased taille.The monarchy relied on the lesser nobles and middle class for royal power.Industry and commerce was promoted.Section 4EnglandThe Tudor dynasty was established when Henry Tudor ended the Wars of the Roses.Henry VII abolished private armies.Henry VII became popular with his low taxes.Political Recovery (cont.)Section 4SpainDuring the Middle Ages, Christian kingdoms regained land from the Muslims.The Christian kingdoms were unified when Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon in 1469.Ferdinand and Isabella enforced strict conformity to Catholicism.Political Recovery (cont.)Section 4The Holy Roman Emperor was a position held by the Hapsburg dynasty of Austria.Eastern Europe was unable to centralize due to religious and political differences. In Russia, Ivan III overthrew the Mongols and established a new Russian state by 1480.Political Recovery (cont.)ABCDSection 4How did the French monarchy become wealthier during the reign of Louis XI? A. Annexing more land B. Promoting tradeC. Selling the land of the clergyD. Increasing the tailleSection 4-EndVS 1Society in the HIGH MIDDLE AGESFarming inventions and efficient use of land contributed to population growth.Under the manorial system, serfs were legally bound to the land they worked for the lord.Revival of trade changed the economy from a barter system to one based on money.As trade grew, cities expanded and became manufacturing and trade centers.VS 2CATHOLICISM, INNOVATIONS, AND INTELLECTUAL REVIVAL in the Middle AgesPolitical power of the Catholic Church peaked during the papacy of Pope Innocent III.Religious fervor led to new monastic orders. Advances in technology allowed the building of impressive Gothic cathedrals.Europe’s first universities were founded.Popular troubadour poetry and heroic epic poems were written in the vernacular.VS 3Disruptive Forces of the LATE MIDDLE AGESThe Black Death spread through Europe, devastating societies and economies.The Great Schism damaged the Church’s power and divided Europe.In the Hundred Years’ War, peasant foot soldiers, not knights, won the chief battles.Recovery began in the late 1400s as new monarchies emerged in France, England, and Spain.VS-EndFigure 1Figure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6Figure 7Chapter Trans MenuChapter Transparencies MenuChapter Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Cause-and-Effect Transparency Select a transparency to view.Chapter TransUnit Timeline TransCnETransDFS Trans 1DFS Trans 2DFS Trans 3DFS Trans 4Vocab1carrucaa heavy, wheeled plow with an iron plowshare Vocab2manorin medieval Europe, an agricultural estate that a lord ran and peasants worked Vocab3serfin medieval Europe, a peasant legally bound to the land who had to provide labor services, pay rents, and be subject to the lord’s control Vocab4money economyan economic system based on money rather than barter Vocab5commercial capitalismeconomic system in which people invest in trade or goods to make profits Vocab6bourgeoisiethe middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional peopleVocab7patricianwealthy, powerful landowners who formed the ruling class in the Roman Republic Vocab8guilda business association that is associated with a particular trade or craft; guilds evolved in the twelfth century and played a leading role in the economic life of medieval cities Vocab9apprenticeone who learns a trade by practical experience under skilled craftspeople Vocab10journeymana worker who has learned a trade and works for wages for other masters Vocab11masterpiecepiece created by a journeyman who aspires to be a master craftsperson; it allowed the members of a guild to judge whether the journeyman was qualified to become a master and join the guild Vocab12technologythe science or study of the practical or industrial arts; applied sciences Vocab13crucialessential; important Vocab14lay investiturethe practice by which secular rulers both chose nominees to church offices and gave them the symbols of their office Vocab15interdicta decree by the pope that forbade priests to give the sacraments of the Church to the people Vocab16sacramentChristian rites Vocab17heresythe denial of basic Church doctrines Vocab18relicbones or other objects connected with saints; considered worthy of worship by the faithful Vocab19pursueto follow up or proceed with Vocab20removeto eliminate Vocab21theologythe study of religion and God Vocab22scholasticisma medieval philosophical and theological system that tried to reconcile faith and reason Vocab23vernacularthe language of everyday speech in a particular region Vocab24chanson de gestea type of vernacular literature; this heroic epic was popular in medieval Europe and described battles and political contests Vocab25constructionmanner or method of building Vocab26corporationform of business organization that has a separate legal entity with all the rights and responsibilities of an individual, including the right to buy and sell property, enter into legal contracts, and to sue and be sued Vocab27anti-Semitismhostility toward or discrimination against Jews Vocab28new monarchyin the fifteenth century, government in which power had been centralized under a king or queen (i.e., France, England, and Spain) Vocab29taillean annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy Vocab30abandoneddeserted Vocab31consequencethe effect or result of an actionHelpClick the Forward button to go to the next slide.Click the Previous button to return to the previous slide.Click the Home button to return to the Chapter Menu. Click the Transparency button from the Chapter Menu, Chapter Introduction slides, or Visual Summary slides to access the transparencies that are relevant to this chapter. From within a section, click on this button to access the relevant Daily Focus Skills Transparency.Click the Return button in a feature to return to the main presentation.Click the History Online button to access online textbook features. Click the Reference Atlas button to access the Interactive Reference Atlas. Click the Exit button or press the Escape key [Esc] to end the slide show.Click the Help button to access this screen.Links to Presentation Plus! features such as Maps in Motion, Graphs in Motion, Charts in Motion, Concepts in Motion, and figures from your textbook are located at the bottom of relevant screens. To use this Presentation Plus! product:End of Custom ShowsThis slide is intentionally blank.

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