Bài giảng Environmental Sciences - Chapter 12 Energy from Fossil Fuels

Tài liệu Bài giảng Environmental Sciences - Chapter 12 Energy from Fossil Fuels: Chapter 12 Energy from Fossil FuelsImportant energy factsBrief history of energy *1700-1800 Fire wood *1900-1920 Coal *1950- now crude oil“production of crude oil” = with drawing it from reservesOPEC (pg 314) organization of petroleum exporting countries (Mid-east countries mainly)Decrease in crude oil productionIncrease in crude oil consumptionSo the price went upDuring the oil crisis of 1973How are Fossil Fuels Formed?How much do we have?Coal-several (400) hundred yearsOil- supplies are close to their peak production. One prediction says we could be out of oil in 2045.Natural Gas – at least a 50 year supply in the United StatesWorld Oil Production Francois E. CellierGraph InformationThe black curve (a) shows the historical data of world oil production from 1930 until 2006.The blue curve (b) shows a Hubbert extrapolation model that is based on the last 22 years of historical production data. The model postulates that the peak of world oil production will occur around 2012. The model...

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Chapter 12 Energy from Fossil FuelsImportant energy factsBrief history of energy *1700-1800 Fire wood *1900-1920 Coal *1950- now crude oil“production of crude oil” = with drawing it from reservesOPEC (pg 314) organization of petroleum exporting countries (Mid-east countries mainly)Decrease in crude oil productionIncrease in crude oil consumptionSo the price went upDuring the oil crisis of 1973How are Fossil Fuels Formed?How much do we have?Coal-several (400) hundred yearsOil- supplies are close to their peak production. One prediction says we could be out of oil in 2045.Natural Gas – at least a 50 year supply in the United StatesWorld Oil Production Francois E. CellierGraph InformationThe black curve (a) shows the historical data of world oil production from 1930 until 2006.The blue curve (b) shows a Hubbert extrapolation model that is based on the last 22 years of historical production data. The model postulates that the peak of world oil production will occur around 2012. The model predicts further that the total amount of oil ever to be produced is 2445 * 109 barrels. Out of those, 50% have already been produced, i.e., still to be produced are 1222.5 * 109 barrels. This number is consistent with the proved oil reserve figures published by BP. According to BP, the proved oil reserves are 1209.5 * 109 barrels.The red curve (c) shows a constant exploitation model. This is the oil utilization model, on which the oil reserves of 40.6 years are based. According to this model, we continue to produce and consume oil at the current level for 40.6 more years, after which time it will be all gone.The green curve (d) shows an exponential growth model. To obtain it, I calculated the average exponential annual growth rate over the last 10 years (1.58%), and postulated that oil exploitation shall continue to grow exponentially. Using this model, the remaining oil reserves will last for another 28 years only. After that time, the oil will be gone.Where do we get it?We get 50% of our crude oil from foreign sources Alaska pipeline built to help increase production of domestic crude oilOil: The Most Important Fossil Fuel in the American EconomyEnvironmental ConsequencesProduction: local ecosystems damage possibleTransport: oil spills cause local and regional ecosystem damageUse: photochemical smog, particulates, acid precipitation, carbon dioxideCoalEnvironmental ConsequencesProduction: ecosystem damage, reclamation difficult, acid mine runoff, mine tailings, erosion, black lung, radonTransport: energy intensive because of weight and number of train cars neededUse: fossil fuel with largest source of carbon dioxide and greatest quantity of contaminants, large volume of waste, acid precipitationTypes of CoalPeat- not coal; a precursorLignite- “brown coal”Bituminous- “soft coal;” high in sulfurAnthracite- “hard coal;” low sulfurNatural GasEnvironmental Consequences: Production: local ecosystem damage possible if oil or coal is part of the deposit but this fuel could be produced in a renewable way with less ecosystem damageTransport: can be explosiveUse: produces the least air pollutants of all the fossil fuelsPossibly a transition fuel between fossil fuel and alternative energy sources.Could we use other forms of fossil fuels?21 gallons of oil can be produced from one ton of oil shale There are advances in the technology of extracting oil from the shale that could make it economically feasible and lower the environmental impact.  All of the emissions problems continue to exist with this form of energyAs crude oil prices go up, interest in oil shale goes up. Sustainable Energy OptionsConservation is the best energy plan butYOU have to do your part, the government can’t just fix it. Changing individual habits may be hard. Development of renewable energy sourcesElectricityElectricity is a secondary energy source because it relies on another energy source to create the electricity.Basic production of electricity-boil water to produce steam to turn turbines to generate electron flow through a wire.Examples of primary sources for electrical production (U.S.)20% from nuclear57% from coalOil, geothermal, solar, wind, hydroelectric (no boiling water required for these sources)Is electricity a clean energy source?Hubbert Curve of Oil Production

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