Bài giảng Economics - Chapter 28 Head Start

Tài liệu Bài giảng Economics - Chapter 28 Head Start: Chapter 28Head StartChapter OutlineHEAD START AS AN INVESTMENTTHE HEAD START PROGRAMTHE CURRENT EVIDENCETHE OPPORTUNITY COST OF FULLY FUNDING HEAD STARTThe Head Start ProgramHead Start is an enhanced pre-school program for poor children.It began in 1965.It enrolls nearly 1 million children per year.Its budget is approximately $4 billion per year.Head Start as an InvestmentThe premise of Head Start was that early intervention with education for both parents and children would pay for itself in future years as the enrolled children would become better adults. Specifically, the thought was that they would beMore likely to graduate from high school.Less likely to be imprisoned.More likely to delay having children.Present Value Analysis Using present value analysis we must account for the fact that the costs of the Head Start program occur substantially prior to the onset of financial benefits.If it can be shown that Head Start has all of the benefits just listed, that is not enough.The pre...

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Chapter 28Head StartChapter OutlineHEAD START AS AN INVESTMENTTHE HEAD START PROGRAMTHE CURRENT EVIDENCETHE OPPORTUNITY COST OF FULLY FUNDING HEAD STARTThe Head Start ProgramHead Start is an enhanced pre-school program for poor children.It began in 1965.It enrolls nearly 1 million children per year.Its budget is approximately $4 billion per year.Head Start as an InvestmentThe premise of Head Start was that early intervention with education for both parents and children would pay for itself in future years as the enrolled children would become better adults. Specifically, the thought was that they would beMore likely to graduate from high school.Less likely to be imprisoned.More likely to delay having children.Present Value Analysis Using present value analysis we must account for the fact that the costs of the Head Start program occur substantially prior to the onset of financial benefits.If it can be shown that Head Start has all of the benefits just listed, that is not enough.The present value of the benefits (the reduction in prison costs plus the increase in taxes paid by former enrollees) must exceed the present value of the cost.The External Benefits ArgumentIf there are benefits to preschool for poor children that accrue to the general population there is a positive externality and a market will produce an inefficiently low amount. Generally, when there is a positive externality to any good, economists favor subsidies for it. The Early EvidenceStudies from the 1980s showed that children of the 1960s who were given high quality preschool had significantly Lower rates of imprisonment.Higher rates of educational attainment. These studies showed that every $1 spent on high quality preschool returned $5 later on in higher tax revenues and lower tax expenditures on crime.DoubtsDoubts were raised as to the quality and reliability of these studies. Specifically it was doubted thatpart-time preschool could overcome the effects of poverty.the results could be duplicated in a government program because of the near-ideal nature of the study group.The ProgramEnrolls nearly 1 million children.The population mirrors the poor population so it is disproportionately minority.Costs $5,000 per child enrolled.Is not fully-funded (there are not enough spots to offer Head Start to all who are eligible.)Spending has been greatly increased since 1990.Evidence that Head Start is IneffectiveMany studies conducted over the last 20 years have failed to find a significant link between Head Start participation and any of the long term variables.These studies find that all the benefits that accrue to participants dissipate after 3rd grade.The Opportunity Cost QuestionIf the Head Start program cannot show significant long term benefits, then the opportunity cost of money spent is that:the money cannot be spent on other programs.policy makers fail to consider other programs.

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