Bài giảng C++ - Chapter 1 Introduction to C++ Programming

Tài liệu Bài giảng C++ - Chapter 1 Introduction to C++ Programming:  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1Chapter 1 – Introduction to C++ Programming Outline 1. History of C and C++ 2. C++ Standard Library 3. Basics of a Typical C++ Environment 4. Introduction to C++ Programming 5. A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text 6. Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers 7. Arithmetic 8. Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 9. Introduction to Object Technology  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 History of C and C++ • History of C – Evolved from two other programming languages • BCPL and B – “Typeless” languages – Dennis Ritchie (Bell Laboratories) • Added data typing, other features – Development language of UNIX – Hardware independent • Portable programs – 1989: ANSI standard – 1990: ANSI and ISO standard published • ANSI/ISO 9899: 1990  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 History of C and C++ • History of C++ – Extension of C – Early 1980s: Bjarne Stroustrup (Bell L...

pdf26 trang | Chia sẻ: honghanh66 | Ngày: 20/03/2018 | Lượt xem: 162 | Lượt tải: 0download
Bạn đang xem trước 20 trang mẫu tài liệu Bài giảng C++ - Chapter 1 Introduction to C++ Programming, để tải tài liệu gốc về máy bạn click vào nút DOWNLOAD ở trên
 2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1Chapter 1 – Introduction to C++ Programming Outline 1. History of C and C++ 2. C++ Standard Library 3. Basics of a Typical C++ Environment 4. Introduction to C++ Programming 5. A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text 6. Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers 7. Arithmetic 8. Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators 9. Introduction to Object Technology  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 History of C and C++ • History of C – Evolved from two other programming languages • BCPL and B – “Typeless” languages – Dennis Ritchie (Bell Laboratories) • Added data typing, other features – Development language of UNIX – Hardware independent • Portable programs – 1989: ANSI standard – 1990: ANSI and ISO standard published • ANSI/ISO 9899: 1990  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 History of C and C++ • History of C++ – Extension of C – Early 1980s: Bjarne Stroustrup (Bell Laboratories) – “Spruces up” C – Provides capabilities for object-oriented programming • Objects: reusable software components – Model items in real world • Object-oriented programs – Easy to understand, correct and modify – Hybrid language • C-like style • Object-oriented style • Both  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 C++ Standard Library • C++ programs – Built from pieces called classes and functions • C++ standard library – Rich collections of existing classes and functions • “Building block approach” to creating programs – “Software reuse”  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Basics of a Typical C++ Environment • C++ systems – Program-development environment – Language – C++ Standard Library  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Basics of a Typical C++ Environment Phases of C++ Programs: 1. Edit 2. Preprocess 3. Compile 4. Link 5. Load 6. Execute Loader Primary Memory Program is created in the editor and stored on disk. Preprocessor program processes the code. Loader puts program in memory. CPU takes each instruction and executes it, possibly storing new data values as the program executes. Compiler Compiler creates object code and stores it on disk. Linker links the object code with the libraries, creates a.out and stores it on disk Editor Preprocessor Linker CPU Primary Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . Disk Disk Disk Disk Disk  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Basics of a Typical C++ Environment • Input/output – cin • Standard input stream • Normally keyboard – cout • Standard output stream • Normally computer screen – cerr • Standard error stream • Display error messages  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 Introduction to C++ Programming • C++ language – Facilitates structured and disciplined approach to computer program design • Following several examples – Illustrate many important features of C++ – Each analyzed one statement at a time • Structured programming • Object-oriented programming  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 9A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text • Comments – Document programs – Improve program readability – Ignored by compiler – Single-line comment • Begin with // • Preprocessor directives – Processed by preprocessor before compiling – Begin with #  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 // Fig. 1.2: fig01_02.cpp 2 // A first program in C++. 3 #include 4 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 std::cout << "Welcome to C++!\n"; 9 //indicate that program ended successfully 10 return 0; 11 } // end function main  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 11A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text • Standard output stream object – std::cout – “Connected” to screen – << • Stream insertion operator • Value to right (right operand) inserted into output stream • Escape characters – \ – Indicates “special” character output  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 121.21 A Simple Program: Printing a Line of Text Escape Sequence Description \n Newline. Position the screen cursor to the beginning of the next line. \t Horizontal tab. Move the screen cursor to the next tab stop. \r Carriage return. Position the screen cursor to the beginning of the current line; do not advance to the next line. \a Alert. Sound the system bell. \\ Backslash. Used to print a backslash character. \" Double quote. Used to print a double quote character.  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 // Fig. 1.5: fig01_05.cpp 2 // Printing multiple lines with a single //statement 3 #include 4 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 std::cout << Welcome\nto\n\nC++!\n"; 9 // indicate that program ended successfully 10 return 0; 11 } // end function main Welcome to C++! Using newline characters to print on multiple lines.  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 14Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers • Variables – Location in memory where value can be stored – Common data types • int - integer numbers • char - characters • double - floating point numbers – Declare variables with name and data type before use int integer1; int integer2; int sum; – Can declare several variables of same type in one declaration • Comma-separated list int integer1, integer2, sum;  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 15Another Simple Program: Adding Two Integers • Input stream object – >> (stream extraction operator) • Used with std::cin • Waits for user to input value, then press Enter (Return) key • Stores value in variable to right of operator – Converts value to variable data type • = (assignment operator) – Assigns value to variable – Binary operator (two operands) – Example: sum = variable1 + variable2;  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 // Fig. 1.6: fig01_06.cpp 2 // Addition program. 3 #include 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 int integer1; // first number to be input by user 9 int integer2; // second number to be input by user 10 int sum; // variable in which sum will be stored 11 std::cout << "Enter first integer\n"; // prompt 12 std::cin >> integer1; // read an integer 13 std::cout << "Enter second integer\n"; // prompt 14 std::cin >> integer2; // read an integer 15 sum = integer1 + integer2; // assign result to sum 16 std::cout << "Sum is " << sum << std::endl; // print sum 17 return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully 18 } // end function main  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Arithmetic • Arithmetic calculations – * • Multiplication – / • Division • Integer division truncates remainder – 7 / 5 evaluates to 1 – % • Modulus operator returns remainder – 7 % 5 evaluates to 2  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Arithmetic • Rules of operator precedence – Operators in parentheses evaluated first • Nested/embedded parentheses – Operators in innermost pair first – Multiplication, division, modulus applied next • Operators applied from left to right – Addition, subtraction applied last • Operators applied from left to right Operator(s) Operation(s) Order of evaluation (precedence) () Parentheses Evaluated first. If the parentheses are nested, the expression in the innermost pair is evaluated first. If there are several pairs of parentheses “on the same level” (i.e., not nested), they are evaluated left to right. *, /, or % Multiplication Division Modulus Evaluated second. If there are several, they re evaluated left to right. + or - Addition Subtraction Evaluated last. If there are several, they are evaluated left to right.  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 19Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators • if structure – Make decision based on truth or falsity of condition • If condition met, body executed • Else, body not executed • Equality and relational operators – Equality operators • Same level of precedence – Relational operators • Same level of precedence – Associate left to right  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 20Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators Standard a lgeb ra ic equa lity opera tor or re la tiona l opera tor C++ equa lity or re la tiona l opera tor Examp le of C++ cond ition Meaning of C++ cond ition Relational operators > > x > y x is greater than y < < x < y x is less than y ≥ >= x >= y x is greater than or equal to y ≤ <= x <= y x is less than or equal to y Equality operators = == x == y x is equal to y ≠ != x != y x is not equal to y  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 21Decision Making: Equality and Relational Operators • using statements – Eliminate use of std:: prefix – Write cout instead of std::cout  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 #include 2 using std::cout; // program uses cout 3 using std::cin; // program uses cin 4 using std::endl; // program uses endl 5 // function main begins program execution 6 int main() 7 { 8 int num1; // first number to be read from user 9 int num2; // second number to be read from user 10 cout << "Enter two integers, and I will tell you\n" 11 << "the relationships they satisfy: "; 12 cin >> num1 >> num2; // read two integers 13 if ( num1 == num2 ) 14 cout << num1 << " is equal to " << num2 << endl; 15 if ( num1 != num2 ) 16 cout << num1 << " is not equal to " << num2 << endl;  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 if ( num1 < num2 ) 18 cout << num1 << " is less than " << num2 << endl; 19 if ( num1 > num2 ) 20 cout << num1 << " is greater than " << num2 << endl; 21 if ( num1 <= num2 ) 22 cout << num1 << " is less than or equal to " 23 << num2 << endl; 24 if ( num1 >= num2 ) 25 cout << num1 << " is greater than or equal to " 26 << num2 << endl; 27 return 0; // indicate that program ended successfully 28 } // end function main Enter two integers, and I will tell you the relationships they satisfy: 22 12 22 is not equal to 12 22 is greater than 12 22 is greater than or equal to 12  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Introduction to Object Technology • Object oriented programming (OOP) – Model real-world objects with software counterparts – Attributes (state) - properties of objects • Size, shape, color, weight, etc. – Behaviors (operations) - actions • A ball rolls, bounces, inflates and deflates • Objects can perform actions as well – Inheritance • New classes of objects absorb characteristics from existing classes – Objects • Encapsulate data and functions • Information hiding – Communicate across well-defined interfaces  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Introduction to Object Technology • User-defined types (classes, components) – Data members • Data components of class – Member functions • Function components of class – Association – Reuse classes  2003 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Introduction to Object Technology • Object-oriented analysis and design (OOAD) process – Analysis of project’s requirements – Design for satisfying requirements – Pseudocode • Informal means of expressing program • Outline to guide code

Các file đính kèm theo tài liệu này:

  • pdfgiao_trinh_tin_hoc_chuong_1_7604.pdf
Tài liệu liên quan